Die kalte Sonne website, which is now one of Germany’s most widely read and respected climate science sites, presents two more articles on temperature reconstructions below. The reconstructions are just the latest in a long, growing series of temperature reconstructions globally.
They all have two things in common: 1) almost all show wide temperature variations in sync with solar activity (note here I write “activity” and not “irradiance”, and it sure would be nice if warmist scientists some day learned the difference) and 2) they all disagree with the IPCC CO2-centric computer simulations.
Which one should we believe? Models written by end-of-world physicists or the real, measured data gathered by geoscience experts? Duh! That’s a tough one!
(Click here for some advice to modellers who think they can model the universe from within the confines of their air-conditioned offices.)
What follows are two short essays from Die kalte Sonne website:
Sun Beneath the Earth: Solar Activity Cycles in Tropical Caves Are Revealed
Translated by P Gosselin
A Danish team of scientists led by geoscientist Mads Faurschou Knudsen of the University of Aarhus published a study on the climate impact of solar activity fluctuations in the sub tropics in the journal The Holocene. The group studied how four stalactites in caves in China, Turkey and the USA archived the climate over the last 10,000 years. Using oxygen isotopes, the scientists reconstructed the moisture development at these locations, whereby the corresponding delta-18O-values reflected monsoon intensity.
Applying frequency analysis, the scientists could show characteristic cycles in the monsoon history in the regions of study that follow the known 210-year Suess/de Vries solar cycle. The authors conclude:
The temporal relationship between the Suess solar cycle and particularly significant 210 yr oscillations in the speleothem δ18O records therefore supports the notion that solar variability played a significant role in driving centennial-scale changes in the hydrological cycle in the subtropics during the Holocene.“
Additional suggested reading: Mangini’s-curves-stark-natural-climate-fluctuations-over-last-8000-years/“.
Thanks to MC for research help.
Translated/edited by P. Gosselin
Global and regional temperature development is impacted by numerous climate factors. A reliable quantitative weighting of the various natural and anthropogenic processes is, despite what the IPCC likes to have us believe – still not possible. Finnish scientists Samuli Helama and Jari Holopainen have investigated and checked the springtime temperature development over the last 260 years for southwest Finland for a statistical correlation to see if there are signs of solar activity cycles and ocean cycles being involved.
Their study appeared recently in the renown geosciences journal Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
The scientists found that the temperature is strongly coupled to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which represents the atmospheric pressure difference between Icelandic lows and Azores highs. It concerns foremost the last 160 years, as the barometric pressure measurements for reconstructing the NAO for the time before 1850 are possibly not reliable, the authors write.
The scientists took it a step further and asked themselves what actually could be driving the NAO? And they discovered something surprising. Over long periods during the 20th century they found a statistically significant correlation between solar sunspot activity and the NAO Index. The correlations improved when the time intervals were viewed on decadal scales and the data filtered accordingly. A significant impact on the NAO by the sun has also already been shown by other studies as well.
After Helama and Holopainen were able to show good agreement between sunspots and the NAO, as well as the NAO and the temperature for their southwest region of investigation, they checked the direct relation between solar activity and temperature. Here it turned out there was only a correlation for part of the time, and there were longer periods that were not statistically coupled.
How can this be explained? Climate is a very complex product of multiple, interacting factors. A direct correlation between solar activity and temperature development is thus something that just cannot be expected. The scientists suspect that the sun as the primary pulse generator also possibly causes internal climate cycles that are superimposed on the solar signal. The NAO here could act as a sort of intermediator between the solar activity fluctuations and the Earth’s climate.
Other factors that could adversely impact the correlation between the sun and temperature include time lags in the transposition of a climate impulse, or cooling events through sun-blocking aerosols from large volcanic eruptions. Moreover in needs to be checked if the correlation improves when one checks the development of cosmic rays (instead of sunspots) with temperature.
The study makes an important contribution to the puzzle in understanding the interaction between the sun, ocean cycles and temperature development. Research in this area needs to be intensified.