Hailed as ‘the last piece of the puzzle’ in codifying our understanding of the mechanism(s) that cause climate changes, scientists are increasingly turning to Sun-modulated cosmic ray flux and cloud cover variations as the explanation for decadal- and centennial-scale global warming and cooling. In other words, climate changes are increasingly being attributed to natural variability, not anthropogenic activity.
Image Source: Sciencedaily.com and Climate4you.com
Fewer sunspots leads to low solar activity and more low-level cloud cover that reflects rather than absorbs the incoming solar heat. The result is colder climates. Higher solar activity leads to fewer low clouds and warmer climates, consistent with what has occurred in recent decades. The Modern Grand Maximum of very high solar activity (1940-2015) recently ended.
Periods with few sunspots are associated with low solar activity and cold climate periods. Periods with many sunspots are associated with high solar activity and warm climate periods. … Deterministic models based on the stationary periods confirm the results through a close relation to known long solar minima since 1000 A.D. and suggest a modern maximum period from 1940 to 2015. The conclusion is that the activity level of the Modern Maximum (1940–2000) is a relatively rare event, with the previous similarly high levels of solar activity observed 4 and 8 millennia ago (Usoskin et al., 2003).
With fewer clouds, more solar radiation can be absorbed by the oceans rather than reflected back to space; this, in turn, leads to warming.
Therefore, cloud cover changes and the concomitant alteration of surface solar heat absorption can explain the 1980s to 2000s warming via the increase in absorbed solar radiation (Pinker et al., 2005; Pallé et al., 2004; Herman et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2012; Calbó et al., 2016; Kauppinen et al, 2014; McLean, 2014).
There has recently been a scientific “breakthrough” in understanding the “missing link” between the Sun’s modulation of cosmic rays and thus cloud cover, supported by real-world observational evidence (3,100 hours of data sampling and controlled experimentation). More and more papers detailing the Sun-Climate connection are being published in scientific journals.
The following is an abbreviated list of scientific papers supporting the Sunspot Activity→Cosmic Ray Flux→Cloud Cover Changes→Climate Changes conceptualization published within the last year.
The missing link between exploding stars, clouds, and climate on Earth