New Study Finds Global Cities Have Warmed Due To Rising Solar Surface Forcing Since 1986

The globe’s cities are warming primarily due to declining albedo, not CO2 radiative forcing.

According to a comprehensive new study published in Remote Sensing of Environment, CO2 fertilization has led to an enhanced greening trend in 72.6% of cities across the world since 1985, accelerating to 89.2% since 2001.

Per the authors, this greening trend is the key factor lowering the albedo reflecting incoming solar radiation in urban areas, amounting to a +2.76 W/m² increase in solar radiation reaching the surface from 1986-2020.

In contrast, the clear-sky-only trend from CO2 surface forcing only amounts to 0.2 W/m² per decade (22 ppm), or 0.02 W/m² per year, in the 21st century. (This trend only represents the forcing from CO2 in an imaginary world where no clouds exist.)

Thus, the positive radiative imbalance from the declining trend in albedo explains urban warming far better than an enhanced greenhouse effect from a clear-sky-only CO2 radiative forcing.

Image Source: Wu et al., 2024

10 responses to “New Study Finds Global Cities Have Warmed Due To Rising Solar Surface Forcing Since 1986”

  1. New Study: Since 1986, Global Cities Have Warmed Due To Rising Solar Surface Forcing –

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  3. voza0db

    Do we still need more studies?!?

  4. John Hultquist

    CO2 fertilization has led to an enhanced greening

    In addition, since 1985 there has been (a) new housing neighborhoods built with required enhanced plantings, and (b) new plantings in many cities. So, likely not all from greening of existing (’85) plants.

  5. Lasse

    Clear sky thanks to clean air act.
    90% less SO2 and 20% more sun hours in Stockholm since 1980.(SMHI)

    1. voza0db

      Decision to ban petrol and diesel cars from city centre
      Published: 2023-10-24 12.41

      The plan suggests that from 31 December 2024, 20 blocks of Stockholm’s inner city area will be restricted to low-emission vehicles only, in an effort to reduce pollution and noise

      As if electric vehicles don’t make noise! In many cases it’s even more irritating… As for the pollution, indeed it’s nice to shift pollution elsewhere!

  6. richard

    All cities have been increasing in size, temp increase is not surprising-

    “Because of the “urban heat island” effect, cities of a million or more people can be 1–3°C (1.8–5.4°F) warmer on average—and as much as 12°C (22°F) warmer in the evening—than the surrounding area, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.”

  7. Not The Author

    A few years back, on a hunch, I fired up the spreadsheet and entered data on the per capita carbon footprint by country, which I then compared to the latitude of the population center for each country. And, just as one might expect, in general, the farther you move away from the equator, the greater your “carbon footprint” becomes.

    World migration patterns show a massive transfer of population away from the equator—out of low carbon emitting countries and into high carbon emitting countries. If the UNFCCC were a serious, responsible organization actually dedicated to fighting climate change, the government policies they would be attempting to redesign would be ours. They would be lobbying Congress to end the immigration epoch tomorrow, which would accomplish more in one day to alleviate climate change than the UNFCCC has accomplished in 30 years.

    But here’s what we got instead from the UNFCCC:

    “On the occasion of the 26th United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26), the UN Network on Migration urges States to strengthen their commitments and address the reality that people increasingly migrate to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change…

    “Taking ambitious and urgent climate change mitigation and adaptation action and facilitating safe, orderly and regular migration of people affected by climate change, including by enhancing the availability and accessibility of regular migration pathways and ensuring decent work for migrant workers, will be critical. This would help prevent affected people from resorting to precarious or irregular migration, including at the hands of smugglers, while providing greater certainty and predictability for all communities.

    “Furthermore, community-led inclusive climate adaptation and mitigation measures, enabled by adequate climate finance, will allow affected communities to develop resilience and just transition to a well-being economy and increase the chances that people migrate out of choice, not necessity.”

    In other words, the money you are paying to fight climate change will be used to move people away from the equator and into your country, thus exacerbating climate, which is causing people to move to your country in the first place.

  8. Weekly Climate and Energy News Roundup #588 – Watts Up With That?

    […] New Study Finds Global Cities Have Warmed Due To Rising Solar Surface Forcing Since 1986 […]


    […] warming far better than an enhanced greenhouse effect from a clear-sky-only CO2 radiative forcing. (Read more) […]

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