3 More New Studies Show Modern Arctic Sea Ice Extent Is Greater Than Nearly Any Time In The Last 10,000 Years

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For years scientists have been using biomarker evidence (IP25, PIP25) to reconstruct the Arctic’s sea ice history. The evidence shows modern (20th-21st century) Arctic sea ice is at its greatest extent since the Holocene began.

Scientists (Wu et al., 2020) have determined that from about 14,000 to 8,000 years ago, when CO2 lingered near 250 ppm, the Beaufort Sea (Arctic) was “nearly ice free throughout the year” (<0.2 PIP25) and ~4°C warmer than today in winter.

With CO2 at ~400 ppm, this region is 70-100% ice-covered (>0.8 PIP25) for all but 1-2 summer months in the modern (1988-2007) era.

Image Source: Wu et al., 2020

Interestingly, another study of this same Beaufort Sea region (Durantou et al., 2012) revealed the late 1800s to 1930s were up to 3°C warmer than the late 20th and early 21st century averages and sea ice was present for 1.1 fewer months per year during these earlier periods.

Image Source: Durantou et al., 2012

Another new study (Allaart et al., 2020) concludes that from around 10,000 to 5,000 years ago, Arctic Svalbard (Wijdefjorden) glaciers had retreated many km further back than their modern positions. And the smaller ice caps had “disappeared” from the region.

In contrast, during the last 500 to 700 years Svalbard sea ice has expanded to its highest extent of the Holocene (11,700 years ago to present).

The Holocene’s sea ice maximum just developed during modern times, as the authors note there has been an “increase in IP25 concentrations after c. 0.7±0.2 cal. ka BP, with a maximum in the modern sediments.”

Image Source: Allaart et al., 2020

A study site northeast of Svalbard (Brice et al., 2020) reveals today’s sea surface temperatures of “<0°C” are at least 4°C colder than they were just a few thousand years ago, when the Arctic was sea ice free for all but “a couple of months” every year.

Notice the graphics that show today’s sea ice monthly duration (~11 months per year) and summer sea surface temperatures (zero degrees Celsius) are among the highest and lowest (respectively) of the Holocene.

Image Source: Brice et al., 2020
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New Paper: Sea Levels Higher 4000 Years Ago With Reefs Adapting

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A new in-press journal pre-proof paper by Hallmann et al examines reef response to sea-level and environmental changes in the Central South Pacific over the past 6000 years.

Hat-tip: Reader Mary Brown

The paper documents that sea levels globally saw a single short-lived sea-level highstand between 4100 and 3400 yr before present and coral reefs adapt to changes.

A pristine reef in American Samoa, Credits: NOAA/NMFS/PIFSC/CRED, Oceanography Team, public domain

Abstract

Geological records of coastal system evolution during past higher and/or rising sea levels provide an important baseline for developing projections regarding the response of modern coastal systems to future sea-level rise. The mid-late Holocene corresponds to the most recent window into natural variability prior to the Anthropocene and involves slow-rate and low-amplitude sea-level changes that were mostly governed by a limited glacio-eustatic contribution, most likely sourced from Antarctica, and ‘glacial isostatic adjustment’ processes.

This paper documents in unprecedented detail the response of coral reefs and coastal systems to changing accommodation space in relation to mid-late Holocene sea-level changes in French Polynesia.

The sea-level curve that underpins this study has a global significance and documents a single short-lived sea-level highstand between 4.10 and 3.40 kyr BP. The amplitude of the highstand is less than one metre, within the range of the predicted sea level at the end of the current century. The reported relative sea-level changes are characterized by slow rates ranging from a few tens of millimetres per year to up to 2.5 mm/yr and by significant sea-level stability (stillstands) lasting more than a century and up to 250 years, defining a step-like pattern. Sea-level variability probably driven by climatic oscillations on interannual to millennial time scales is evidenced during the entire time window.

The detailed reconstruction of reef development over the last 6000 years brings valuable information regarding coral reef dynamics and coastal processes during periods of higher sea level and wave energy regimes. The persistence of stable and optimal depositional environments over the last 6000 years is demonstrated by the constant overall composition and diversity of reef communities and the almost continuous development of coral microatolls. The facies distribution as well as the lateral extension and shift of facies belts have been governed by variations in accommodation space, which are controlled by relative sea-level changes and antecedent topography. The widespread development of mid-late Holocene reef deposits in coastal areas suggests that they have played a prominent role in global processes related to the formation and shaping of modern islands.




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Battery Issues Continue To Plague Electric Cars…BMW Orders “Large-Scale” Recall Of Plugin Hybrids

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Technical snafus lead to mass recall of BMW hybrid vehicles. Image: Mario Roberto Durán Ortiz jCreative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

Explosive car batteries? BMW recalls large number of electric hybrid cars

By A.R. Göhring
(Translated by P. Gosselin)

Reader M.P. points out how ‘auto motor sport’ and other magazines are reporting that BMW is recalling its plugin hybrids on a large scale. What is the problem?

Since August this year, BMW has been recalling its plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) models X1 to 3 and X5, 3 Series, 3 Series Touring, 2 Series Active Tourer, 7 Series, 5 Series (incl. Touring) and ‘Mini Countryman’.

The reasons given are production errors during welding and impurities, some of which may cause short circuits in the high-voltage battery (i.e. the traction battery). Production batches from the period January 20 to September 18 are partially affected.

In addition to the recall, there is also a delivery stop. More than 25,000 cars are affected worldwide, 8,000 of which are in the hands of customers (Germany: 5,300/1,800). The models already sold currently may not be charged; during trips  only with restrictions. This should not be a problem, as many customers do not load their company cars off the grid.

At the end of October, the Federal Motor Transport Authority will start a check of the cars sold. The procedure will take about 30 minutes without repair, if necessary.

Not only BMW has the PHEV problem. Ford, too, has already had to call back its Kuga model. The reason was a memory error with fire hazard, which prohibited recharging the battery.

Read more: europe.autonews.com/hybrids-fire-risk-samsung-battery.




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Scientists Have Determined A 5°C Warmer Earth ‘Would Provide More Habitable Conditions’

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In a new study, scientists insist that since the Earth’s highest biomass and biodiversity exist in the warmest regions, “higher temperatures than currently existing on Earth” and a “higher water content (absolute humidity) in the atmosphere” seem to be “more favorable” to the planet’s inhabitants.

Until a few thousand years ago, when mammoths and wild horses ate exposed grass year-round along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean, the Sahara was grass- and lake-covered, teeming with fish and megafauna and even ancient civilizations. These much-warmer periods were obviously more hospitable to plants, animals, and humans.

Image Source: LiveScience

In addition to being several degrees warmer, the Earth’s climate was also much more humid and rainforest-like during the Early Holocene, or up until about 5,000 years ago. Rainforests have far more biodiversity than cooler climates do, of course. This is likely why this period is referred to as the “Humidity Optimum” by geologists (Ramos-Roman et al., 2018).

Image Source: Ramos-Roman et al., 2018

In a new study (Schulze-Makuch et al., 2020), scientists acknowledge that the “highest biomass and biodiversity is present in tropical rainforests, and the least in cold polar regions.” Therefore, higher temperatures – about 5°C warmer than today – would be more “favorable”  and “provide more habitable conditions.”

Unfortunately,  we humans have not demonstrated we have the capacity to significantly affect the climate in recent decades, and thus we will continue to stand idly by as the Earth’s climate changes without us.

Image Source: Schulze-Makuch et al., 2020



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Greta, Green Movement, Let Mask Slip. Tweet Exposes Their True Face: Tyranny With No Choices

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Greta Thunberg, the “sad and angry” Swedish teen climate activist, put up a survey at Twitter pertaining to Europe’s Common Agricultural policy (CAP). It unwittingly exposes how she and her movement really think:

Like a true tyrant, only one choice is provided and tolerated: her own.

That’s the fundamental characteristic of the green climate movement: “Shut up and do as we tell you. We understand the world, and you’re too stupid to do so. So we’ll make the choices for you.”

Here are other surveys one could expect from Greta:

What is the only right way for people to travel?
A. By foot
B. By bicycle
C. All of the above

What is the only right thing for people to eat?
A. Only plant-based foods
B. No animal products at all
C. All of the above

Who should be elected president of the USA?
A. Joe Biden
B. Not Trump
C. One of the above

What is the only right tax rate?
A) Government takes all
B. Workers should keep nothing
C. All the above

These are the “choices” you see under tyrannies. NO CHOICE. It’s the only way they get the result they want because they lack the arguments to convince a majority that their extreme ideas and experimentation proposals are practical.




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Great Britain September Mean Temperatures Cooling. Also: Models Suggest Harsh, Long Winter Ahead

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By Kirye
and Pierre Gosselin

Compiled data show Great Britain early fall has been cooling over the past quarter century and models showing a harsh Europe 2020/21 winter in the works. 

Compiling September data for Great Britain recorded by 14 stations for which the Japan meteorological Agency (JMA) has sufficient data, we plot the trends as follows:

Data: JMA

11 of 14 stations show September mean temperatures have been cooling or no trend for 25 years. This suggests that fall is approaching earlier instead of later, thus co0ntradicting alarmist claims of warming.

The cause of the cooling cannot be linked to CO2 and is likely driven by natural factors, such as oceanic cycles (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) and solar activity.

Source: NCAR UCAR

Frigid European winter in the works?

Meanwhile, the latest CFSv2 forecast for the coming winter suggests frigid conditions for Europe. Hat-tip: SnowFan

Source: Meteociel CFSv2 forecasts winter 2020/21 Europe

The experimental numerical NOAA model CFSv2 sees a cold and long winter in large parts of Europe. The temperatures in about 1500m (850hPa) will be mostly and partly strongly below the WMO mean 1981-2010, especially from January 2021 until May 2021. If these of course still very uncertain repeated cold forecasts come true, it could become a historically cold and especially long winter.




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Greta Melts Down In Reaction To EU Parliament Vote In Favor Of CAP. “We Won’t Forget”!

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Teen activist Greta Thunberg is having another temper tantrum right now, and suggests in a tweet there will be retaliation! 

Her indignation is a reaction to today’s European Parliament failure to vote down Common Agricultural Policy’s (CAP) watered down changes that include making money available for landscapes that benefit biodiversity, environmental and climate-related measures and direct direct payments for eco-schemes.

The EU Parliaments voted for its plan by a vast margin 425 – 212, with 51 abstaining.

The WWF EU tweeted that the CAP deal has “no environmental credibility”: 

WeMove Europe tweeted:

The EU Parliament’s decision to approve the CAP signifies climate protection is not as serious an issue as it often makes it out to be. Greta and her cult followers are fuming.




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New Study Finds A Robust Link Between European Temperatures And Solar Activity Via AMO/NAO Modulation

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European winter temperature variability is “dominated” by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which is, in turn, modulated by solar activity.

Even proponents of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) agree natural processes (AMO, NAO, ENSO, solar forcing, volcanism) drive temperature variability. But they insist the rising temperature trend is human-caused.

So if we don’t have a regional upward trend, is the non-warming natural or anthropogenic?

Lüdecke et al., 2020 find temperatures across Europe have been oscillating, not rising in linear fashion, for the last century. The timings of the temperature undulations correspond quite closely to natural ocean cycles (the NAO and AMO). The authors detail a non-linear and indirect solar activity impact on these ocean cycles, and ultimately to the European climate.

Image Source: Lüdecke et al., 2020



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Environment Of Terror – 75% Would Not Publicly Post Mahomed Caricatures With Their Name, Address

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Last week the beheading of a French school teacher by an Islamic terrorist in broad daylight shocked the world. Barbaric attacks on free speech and the exchange of ideas are taking place in Europe. Similar acts have occurred in other western countries in recent years.

The grisly death of the French teacher sends a clear message: Western citizens cannot feel safe expressing their views, not even at home – on their very own soil. Our governments have failed.

At Twitter I started an unofficial small survey, below, to get an idea of the extent of fear people harbor when it comes to expressing controversial views. According to Google Analytics, the vast majority of the readers at this site reside in Europe and North America.

The results, though not representative, are somewhat shocking. 75% say they would not post the Mahomed caricatures together with their name and address because they fear retaliation. This, in their home countries.

The terrorists have won the first battle in Europe

This tells us the terrorists are indeed winning and that our governments are failing to provide us with a sense of security when it comes to expressing views on controversial topics that need to be openly discussed.

Though the French police are clamping down hard on the radicals behind the heinous crime, citizens will remain convinced that free speech on particular topics is no longer safe and that the governments are unable to protect us.

Western citizens now believe that radical elements exist among us and that our governments have failed to keep them out and unable to do anything about until after tragedy happens. Radicalism has been allowed to stream through our borders and now it here terrorizing us. It’s here and it’s not going to go away. Our governments have absolutely no concept on how to uproot it. Now 75% are afraid to speak up publicly. How sad.

Freedom of expression and open discussion has already lost the first battle.

Additional reading (in German): www.spiegel.de




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Environmental Rape Of Africa: Hamburg Power Plants Aim To Deforest Namibia For Power Plant Fuel!

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Environmental rape in the name of climate protection.

To meet its CO2 reductions targets, Hamburg plans to deforest Africa in order to substitute coal with wood at its power plants!


Nambia’s bushwood may end up being burned in place of coal at Hamburg’s power plants – all in the European city’s plan to go green! Photo: Scott A. Christy (Heyheyuwb, CC-BY-2.5; Released under the GNU Free Documentation License; CC-BY-SA-3.0-MIGRATED, Wikimedia Commons.

Substituting coal with wood from Africa

German environmental protection group ROBIN WOOD here recently issued a press release calling on the city of Hamburg, Germany to cancel its plan to replace coal with imported bushwood from Namibia at its power plants, such as the Tiefstack cogeneration plant.

In May, 2020, a “Memorandum of Understanding” became known, according to which the Hamburg environmental authority (BUKEA) and Wärme Hamburg GmbH are examining a project of this kind.

ROBIN WOOD is firmly opposed to this project of a “Transcontinental Biomass Partnership Namibia – Hamburg”, which is being promoted by the German Association for International Cooperation (GIZ).

“Obliged” to pursue “socially just, climate-friendly” renewable energies

“With the referendum on the buyback of the energy networks, which was won in 2013, the Hamburg Senate was obliged to pursue the goal of a “socially just, climate-friendly and democratically controlled energy supply from renewable energies,” says the ROBIN WOOD press release. “The intended burning of bushwood from Namibia clearly contradicts this goal.”

Voters apparently were not well informed what meeting the climate-friendly” goals really entailed when they voted.

Namibia land use – to benefit crony euro-corporations

Because of the long transport distances and especially because of changes in land use in Namibia, this form of energy supply would not be climate-compatible. The German environmental group also claims “the main beneficiaries would be corporations in the global North, which would be able to sell machines and transport vehicles and supply themselves with raw materials.”

No transparency

ROBIN WOOD also accuses the green-socialist Hamburg Senate of avoiding an open-ended debate about the project and criticizes the lack of transparency and democratic control.

“We are calling for a climate-friendly, 100 percent renewable energy supply that does not require the neo-colonial import of resources from the global south,” says Ronja Heise, ROBIN WOOD energy consultant.

Namibia already lacking energy

“Namibia is itself in an energy crisis and is importing up to 60 percent dirty coal power from neighboring countries to cover its local energy needs. Instead of exporting biomass, Namibia should use it to produce electricity in its own country. Sustainable methods for bush clearance must be applied. Bushes are an important carbon sink. They must therefore only be harvested in a targeted manner, which cannot be guaranteed if very large quantities of wood are exported,” says Bertchen Kohrs, Director of the organization Earthlife Namibia.

Green-socialist Senate claims support for project

“The Hamburg Senate, in its response to a written petition, gave the impression that the NGOs whichoppose bushwood imports would have a similar number of supporters. This is wrong,” said Gilbert Siegler of the Hamburg Energy Table. “We invite other organizations to join the signatories in opposing the implementation of a ‘Biomass Partnership with Namibia’. This pretense of climate protection must be prevented.”

The signatories of the petition call on the Hamburg environmental authority to stop pursuing this project and to work towards an energy supply for Hamburg that is in line with the binding goals of the referendum.




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Is Mauna Loa Really The Best Location To Measure ‘Global’ CO2 Levels?

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Highly anomalous terrain (an active volcano), 40 years of cooling temperatures, and a CO2 record that dramatically contrasts with fluctuating values from forests and meadows reaching 600-900 ppm all beg the question: Is Mauna Loa’s CO2 record globally representative?

Mauna Loa is the Earth’s largest land volcano. It has erupted over 3 dozen times since 1843, making this terrestrial landscape extremely unusual relative to the rest of the globe’s terrain. (Forests, in contrast, cover over 30% of the Earth’s  land surface.)

Mauna Loa has been thought to be the world’s best location to monitor global CO2 levels since 1958.

While Mauna Loa CO2 levels show a rise of 338 ppm to 415 ppm since 1980, Mauna Loa temperatures (HCN) show a cooling trend during this same time period. The only warming period in the last 65 years occurred between about 1975 and 1985.

Image Source: oz4caster

Forest CO2 fluctuations

As mentioned above, forests are orders of magnitude more terrestrially representative than the highly anomalous site of the Earth’s largest volcano.

In forests or tree-covered areas, CO2 rises from around 300 ppm in the warmth of the afternoon (~3 p.m.) to over 600 ppm before sunrise (~4 a.m.), when it is cooler (Fennici, 1986, Hamacher et al., 1994). This massive fluctuation occurs daily and CO2 values average out to be far higher than the Mauna Loa record suggests.

Image Source: Fennici, 1986

Image Source: Hamacher et al., 1994

Meadow CO2 fluctuations

In open fields, or meadows, air CO2 can vary between 266 ppm and 1,430 ppm. The average variance is from 280 ppm to 980 ppm 2 meters above the soil (Szaran et al., 2005).

Interestingly, just as in forests, temperature drops of 4 to 5°C are associated with rising levels of CO2.

Image Source: Szaran et al., 2005

CO2 beneath snow and ice

Modern CO2 concentrations beneath snowpack and ice range from 600 to 1800 ppm. These concentrations can fluctuate by as much as 200 ppm within a period of just 4 days (Massman and Frank, 2006).

If this kind of rapid and wide-ranging variability can be observed for modern conditions, our capacity to accurately assess the “global” CO2 concentration for ice and snow thousands of years old becomes all the more suspect.

Image Source: Massman and Frank, 2006

CO2 near cave entrances

Within caves, CO2 levels can reach as high as 30,000 ppm. Even in the open air <1 meter from the entrance to a cave, CO2 levels can reach 11,500 ppm (Cowan et al., 2013).

CO2 levels vary by 10s of 1000s of ppm from one cave to the next in the same geographical region.

Image Source: Cowan et al., 2013

Mauna Loa CO2 is globally representative?

Cave entrances should probably be considered no less terrestrially unusual than the site of the world largest active volcano. And certainly forests and meadows are far more representative of the Earth’s terrestrial landscape than the Mauna Loa site.

And yet it has been decided, via consensus, that the rarified air above a Hawaiian island in the middle of the Pacific correctly monitors the CO2 levels for the entire globe.

Why?




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Norway Glaciers Show Surprisingly Small Retreat During 2020…”Nigardsbreen Glacier Actually Grew”

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As the globe has warmed since the end of the Little Ice Age, alarms concerning retreating glaciers have been sounded worldwide. The reason for the warming remains hotly disputed: alarmists blame it on manmade CO2 while skeptics say natural factors are just as much at play, if not more so.

Image: Norwegian glace, for illustration purpose. Source: NASA/John Sonntag, public domain.

Very little retreat in Norway this past summer

Yesterday Norwegian NRK here reported “several of the largest glaciers have almost not shrunk” during this past summer.

“This year, several places in the country have almost not shrunk,” according to the Norwegian NVE.

Since 1962 experts have been monitoring the Nigardsbreen glacier, an arm of Jostedalsbreen located in Vestland county.  The summer of 2020 has seen the sixth slowest result in about half a century. “If we get more such summers to come, then the glacier front will grow forward again,” says Even Loe in Statkraft.

“The glacier is named after the farm Nigard, which was crushed by the glacier in 1748. At that time the front of the glacier stopped about 4.5 km further ahead than it is today,” reports the NRK.

Experts attribute this past summer’s stagnation to “a good winter with a lot of snow.”

“The Nigardsbreen glacier has actually grown bigger.”

Glaciologist Hallgeir Elvehøywhich said the glacier retreated 4 meters, “something that is very small compared to previous ones.”

“The trend is largely the same elsewhere in the country,” he says.

Although many glaciers have decreased relatively little this year, the Norwegian experts still remain pessimistic about their future, should warming continue as the models project. “But in all the gloom, there is also a small glimmer of light, should the rainfall continue.”

“There is nothing in the way that the climate system can give us several years with so much snow, and then it will have an effect.”




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