Physicists’ Lab Experiment Shows A CO2 Increase From 0.04% To 100% Leads To No Observable Warming

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Two University of Oslo physicists designed several variations of a tabletop experiment trying to confirm the IPCC’s claimed CO2-forcing capacity. Instead they found (a) 100% (1,000,000 ppm) CO2 “heats” air to about the same temperature that non-greenhouse gases (N2, O2 [air], Ar) do, and (b) no significant temperature difference in containers with 0.04% vs. 100% CO2.

Observations, experiments do not support a large forcing effect for CO2

Real-world outdoor observations indicate that even a massive variance in the CO2 concentration, from 0.1% to 75% during a 24-hour period over a mofette field, has no detectable effect in stimulating changes to the surface temperature. Instead, the CO2 concentration changes in response to the temperature.

Indoor tabletop experiments also demonstrate there is a very small temperature difference when adding 100% CO2 to a container. And even this tiny temperature change can be attributed to the reduction in convective cooling effect of adding CO2 molecules, not the radiative or “greenhouse” effect of CO2.

There is also no temperature difference detected when comparing CO2’s “heating” capacity to that of a non-greenhouse gas like Argon (Wagoner et al., 2010), as the “temperature rose by approximately the same amount and at the same rate as for CO2” when 100% Argon was used.

Another study questions claims of CO2’s temperature-forcing effect

And now a recently published study (Seim and Olsen, 2020) further affirms these experimental observations. The authors tested the forcing effects of increased IR radiation on temperature using a specially-designed meter-long chamber, a 500 watt halogen bulb, and IR radiation detectors.

The fundamental assumption of the greenhouse theory is that increasing the CO2 concentration by a factor of 2 or more (i.e., from 0.03% to 0.06%) leads to 2 to 4 degrees of additional warming (at least), aligning with expectations from the Stefan-Boltzmann law.

Instead of observing these strong temperature responses to increasing CO2 concentrations, Seim and Olsen found there is almost no effect at all – perhaps an additional 0.15°C at most – when adding pure (100%) CO2 to a halogen-heated chamber (+30°C). There isn’t even a detectable difference in temperature when comparing the temperature effects of CO2 to a non-greenhouse gas like Argon.

The results of these experiments led the authors to “question the fundament of the forcing laws used by the IPCC.”

Image Source: Seim and Olsen, 2020

Notable quotes from the Seim and Olsen, 2020 study:

• “[T]he idea that backscatters from CO2 is the main driver of global temperatures might be wrong.”

• “[T]he temperature [in a thermophile] with [100%] CO2 increased slightly, about 0.5% [an additional 0.15°C for a container heated from 20°C to 50°C].”

• “We do not observe any significant difference in the two curves due to the increase in the CO2 concentration from ca. 400 ppm to about 100% in the front chamber.”

• “The results of our study show the near-identical heating curves when we change from air  [N2, O2] to 100% CO2 or to Argon gas with low CO2 concentration.”

• “The warming of the Al-plate was also measured, but no extra heating was found by filling CO2 in the front chamber.”

• “These findings might question the fundament of the forcing laws used by the IPCC.”

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“Explosive” German Government Audit Report: ‘Energiewende’ Has Become “A Danger For All Of Germany”

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Hey Hans, how’s that Energiewende working out for ya?

Germany’s Energiewende faces bleak future if government does wake up to harsh realities, new Audit Report finds. Image: P. Gosselin.

A new German government audit report warns that the Energiewende is exploding costwise, and that there is a real danger of electricity shortfalls…”a danger for all of Germany”

Daniel Wetzel at German national daily Die Welt reports on the latest German Federal Court of Auditors’ warning: “If things continue like this, Germany as a business location is in danger. The costs are out of control – and there is a growing threat of an electricity shortfall.”

The “Energiewende” (transition to green energies) has seen Germany recklessly rush into wildly fluctuating wind and solar energy without properly planning the grave impacts they would have on the power supply grid and prices.

So explosive is the German Government Audit report that Die Welt and the government auditors see the Energiewende as a “danger for all of Germany”.

The German auditors had already voiced harsh criticism three years earlier in another special report, whose main focus had been on the high cost of the Energiewende. The latest report now also includes “an explosive analysis” on power supply instability and the high probability of power shortfalls.

“Since our last review in 2018, too little has been done to successfully shape the energy transition,” said the President of the Federal Court of Audit, Kay Scheller,

Dismissing the “real dangers”

The report finds that not only have the costs spiraled out of control, but that the German federal government “does not have a sufficient view of the emerging, real dangers to the security of supply” and that “ever higher electricity prices” are to be feared in the current system.

German electricity are among the highest in the world, and there is still no end in sight for the cost spiral. One study found that another whopping 525 billon euros will be needed by 2025 to upgrade the power grid, according to Die Welt.

Germany endangered, in jeopardy

The development of green energies in Germany has gotten so bad that the Federal Audit Office sees the risk the Energiewende could “endanger Germany as a business location and overburden the financial sustainability of electricity-consuming companies and private households,”

“This can then ultimately jeopardize the social acceptance of the energy transition,” warned Scheller.

Government making too many rosy assumptions

Die Welt characterizes the Government Audit report as “explosive” and a long overdue wake-up call. The auditors accuse the federal government of not having properly taken into account the consequences of the coal phase-out, making assumptions that seem “unrealistic or are outdated by current political and economic developments” and making overly optimistic assumptions on the future available wind and sun.

Underestimating the need for reserve power plants

The auditors also doubt that the need for reserve power plants was properly determined and that should the government continue its current course with the Energiewende, costs will not only explode, but the risks of grid instability will rise. Already companies are envisioning voluntary temporary shutdowns in the event of power shortages.

Overall, the Federal Court of Audit finds that essential assumptions made by the government concerning the security of supply are “unrealistic or outdated.”

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The One Million-Kilometer Frequent Flier – In Just 2 Years: Director Of Environmental Activist Organization!

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A.R. Göhring at the Germany-based European Institute for Climate and Energy (EIKE) here features a look at environmental activist group ‘Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH) – German Environmental Aid – and its co-director Jürgen Resch.

Million-kilometer frequent flying climate activist. From Bündnis 90/Die Grünen – Jürgen Resch (Deutsche Umwelthilfe), CC BY-SA 4.0,

It is one of the best-known and some would argue one of the most scandalous German NGO organizations who like to mix climate science with policymaking

Founded in 1975

First a little history: The German environmental group DUH is surprisingly old – it was founded already in 1975 and served to raise money for environmental group BUND – the German League for the Environment and Nature Conservation. It employs about 100 people, who make an average of about 49,000 euros a year + benefits and insurances.

DUH offices and branches are located in Berlin, Radolfzell, Hanover, Erfurt, Wolgast (Pomerania) and Köthen (Anhalt). The capital city office is located in a noble building in a prime location at Hackescher Markt 4.

The DUH is very well funded and has been a major player in pushing the German government to enact ridiculously strict limits on nitrogen oxides (NOx) in outdoor air and vilifying the diesel engine and plenty of climate activism.

Funded by government, foundations and corporations

Not only is the organization well funded by the government, but it also receives a number of donations from larger corporations and private foundations. These include the ClimateWorks Foundation, CWF, which in 2014, sent $700,000 from San Francisco to the DUH. One of the most important players at CWF is John Podesta, advisor to Barack Obama and campaign manager for Hillary Clinton.

Toyota has been working with the DUH for 20 years and supports two DUH projects with up to 80,000 € annually. In return, DUH recommends the purchase of Prius and other hybrid models. In 2005, DUH received €100,000 from filter manufacturers.

Lavish lifestyles 

In 2015 and 2016, a total of 8.1 million euros was earned, which was also spent probably on the lavish salaries and environmentally unfriendly lifestyles. Co-director Jürgen Resch has been with the organization since 1986 and earned so much money at the beginning that he gave up his studies to work for DUH.

1 million kilometers of flying – in 2 years

Resch was even denounced by Der Spiegel in 2007 for his ecological double standards when the magazine noted that the DUH director almost lived at the airport, With Lufthansa he had the highest possible frequent flier status, HON Circle. To be eligible, one only had to fly at least 600,000 miles (almost 1 million kilometers) within two years – equivalent to about 28 circumnavigations of the earth.

According to Spiegel: “Resch justifies his restless flight missions with his participation in international climate conferences and projects. He also has to commute several times a month between the DUH headquarters on Lake Constance and the association’s office in Berlin.”

Resch’s double standard was and is possible without any problems because almost all ecologically-minded people only use the issue for their own purposes and, according to the statistics, usually even have a much greater eco-footprint than the normal taxpayer.

One should not forget that the DUH German Environmental Aid is only the visible tip of the iceberg. The internationally networked alarmist scene in NGOs and the media, the base of the iceberg, is huge.

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It’s Official: Greenland Has Not Warmed Since 2001: The Recent Sharp Warming Lasted From 1981-2000

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A new study (Hanna et al., 2021) affirms a significant warming trend occurred in the late 20th century across Greenland, mirroring the warming that occurred in the early 20th century. Since 2001, the temperature trends across Greenland have stopped rising and begun cooling.

A temperature pattern has been emerging in Greenland during the last few decades that does not align with alarming proclamations of catastrophic ice sheet melt from accelerated warming.

After significant summer (winter) warming of about 2°C (to 4°C) from the 1980s to 2000, Greenland’s warming trend has plateaued and, since 2012, a cooling trend has commenced.

“[S]ince 2001 overall temperature trends are generally flat and insignificant due to a cooling pattern over the last 6–7 years.”

“According to MAR, and in line with the DMI coastal station analysis above, much of southern and southwest Greenland has not warmed during autumn since 1991. MAR trends between 2001 and 2019 show the southwest of the country cooling in winter and spring, and deeper, much more widespread cooling in west Greenland in autumn.”

Image Source: Hanna et al., 2021

Greenland’s Climate History Recycled

The temperature trends across Greenland seem to have followed an oscillatory pattern over the last 100 years. Between 1920 and 1930, Greenland abruptly warmed “between 2 and 4°C in less than ten years,” with some stations recording as much as 6°C warming during this span (Chylek et al., 2004).

Interestingly, Greenland’s “annual whole ice sheet 1919–32 warming trend [was] 33% greater in magnitude than the 1994–2007 warming” (Box et al., 2009).

Greenland temperatures plateaued during the 1930s and then, after 1940, a 50-year-long cooling trend commenced (Chylek et al., 2004).

Image Source: Chylek et al., 2004

Dubious CO2-Induced Greenland Warming

For some reason, Hanna and colleagues believe it is reasonable to assume CO2 has been driving the recent (1981-2000) warming even though they acknowledge CO2 has continued rising even as temperatures have flattened and cooled this century. They oddly project dramatic warming and ice sheet melt for the coming decades based on CO2 emissions scenarios.

Apparently these scientists are unaware of the measurements indicating the CO2 greenhouse effect forcing is as “comparatively weak” for Greenland as it is for Antarctica (-2.9 W/m² to +1 W/m²) according to Schmithusen et al. (2015), effectively ruling out a significant or even causal role for CO2 forcing of Greenland’s climate trends.

Image Source: Schmithusen et al., 2015

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Antarctic Sea Ice Grows 2 Million Sq. Km – Area As Big As Saudi Arabia. And: Hamburg Spring Arriving Later…

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Antarctic sea ice grows 2 million square kilometers in 4 years…

It’s hard to back up the statement: Global warming is global. Some places have seen warming over the past 40 years (e.g. Arctic), but other places have not.

Antarctica definitely has not been playing along with the man-made global warming hoax. (Yes, man has caused some of the warming, but not all – and it certainly isn’t catastrophic).

Antarctic sea ice surges

Though Antarctic sea ice fell to a “record minimum” in 2017 – after having reached a “record high” in 2015 – the latest data from the National Snow and Ice Data Center show sea ice at the South Pole has bounced back robustly since, surging some 500,000 sq km above the mean.

Cropped chart parts,  source: NSIDC.

On March 26, 2017, Antarctic sea ice measured 3.055 million sq km. Four years later, sea ice reached 5.103 million sq km. That’s a difference of more than 2 million sq. km., which is an area the size of Saudi Arabia!

No way to ignore natural factors

So why would sea ice grow so quickly? If the ice had disappeared, many would blame it on greenhouse gases – absurd of course. And it would be just as absurd to blame the recent gain on global cooling. Obviously there is a complex array of natural factors at work – factors that climate alarmists consistently have ignored over the past decades.

Here’s the March 26, 2021 satellite photo of Antarctica:

Source: NSIDC

Hamburg spring trending a bit later

One interesting climate anecdote is spring trend in Hamburg, Germany. It appears that Hamburg’s forsythia flowering is occurring increasingly late, according to our friends at Die kalte Sonne here. Also not what we’d expect from “warming”.

By Josef Kowatsch

The perceived beginning of spring in Germany is when the Hamburg forsythia bush in the city centre blooms. The location at the Lombardsbrücke on the Alster is well suited because the surrounding area has hardly changed in the last 50 years. Phenologist Jens Iska-Holtz dates the flowering date for 2021 on the 25th of March, which is 84 days since the beginning of the year. Over the last 50 years, the following graph emerges:

Fig. 1: Development of forsythia flowering in Hamburg since 1972. The X-axis shows the years since 1972, the Y-axis the flowering date, measured in days after the beginning of the year, i.e. from 1 January.

There has been no significant trend in the flowering dates of the Hamburg forsythia bush on the Alster. The average is 79 days from the beginning of the year. At 84 days, the start of flowering this year was slightly above the average.

Hamburg spring 11 days later since 1990

Next we take the new climate reference period 1991 to 2020 as the period under consideration:

Fig. 2: Development of forsythia flowering in Hamburg since 1991. Note: rising trend line means delay. At the beginning of the observation 31 years ago, the forsythia tended to flower at the end of February, the flowering date moved further and further back into March. The last February flowering was in 2008.

Cooling February

What explains the delay in spring since 1991 in Germany? Global warming? Carbon dioxide?

The month of February is decisive for the forsythia blossom. The corresponding graph from the Hamburg weather station for the month of February shows only a slight cooling since 1988.


Fig. 3: February temperatures in Hamburg since 1988 according to original data from the German Weather Service.

Let’s move on to the question of the year since which the forsythia blossom has been delayed:


Fig. 4: Since 1985, i.e. for 37 years, the forsythia, the DWD’s flagship shrub for the beginning of spring in Hamburg city center, has shown a slight delay in flowering of 5 – 6 days.

The reason for the rising trend line and thus the delay is probably the warm February months of 1988/89/90 at the beginning of the observation period.

Result: Forsythia flowering has been slightly delayed for approx. 37 years – quite clearly from 36 years onwards – although the shrub is located in Hamburg’s inner city, in a heat island. You will probably look in vain in the media for reports on the delay trend of the Hamburg spring bloomer.

Those who read the Die kalte Sonne [or NoTricksZone] blog will therefore know more.

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UK Brexits Global Warming, Has Been Cooling Off Since Long Before Greta Was Born

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By Kirye
and Pierre

Winters across the United Kingdom of Britain appear to have worsened over the past two decades, contradicting earlier warnings they would warm and snow would become rare. 

Due to its geographic location in the the northeast Atlantic, temperature trends in Great Britain have significance. They provide information about how the Atlantic acts on Europe’s climate, like a barometer.

February 2021 temperature data for the UK are available from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), which means we can plot the latest DJF winter mean temperature data point.

UK February hasn’t warmed since 1992 

First we begin by plotting the latest February mean temperatures for the stations with sufficient JMA data:

Data: JMA

Most stations have seen February trending cooler, or almost flat. Believing that late winter has been warming in the UK is wishful thinking.

But February is only one month. What about winters in general? Global warming would suggest that winters in the UK  ought to be warming, with snow becoming increasingly rare and “a thing of the past”.

No warming since long before Greta was born

What follows are the mean DJF winter temperatures for the 14 stations plotted above, since 1998:

Data source: JMA

So our message to all the climate Chicken Littles out there: “The sky is not falling at all, and Britain is barely warming any more.

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Marc Morano’s New Book “Green Fraud”: So Explosive, Leftists Now Pressuring Amazon To Stop Selling It!

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Book recommendation…

Marc Morano, the publisher of Climate Depot, has come out with his latest book: “Green Fraud: Why the Green New Deal Is Even Worse Than You Think. It explains why the “Green New Deal” is just the Red (Communist) Old Deal, but with a new, glossy packaging.

The book has surged to no. 2 on Amazon’s list of books under Environment since its release on March 23. 

(Still) available at Amazon: Green Fraud

While the Green New Deal is being pitched by the media and leftists as the last hope for the environment, the guarantor of nice weather, modern jobs and the provider of utopia, it would in fact lead to the exact opposite: a Varian-like socio-political disaster.

It’s about permanent lockdown

In Green Fraud Marc Morano, author of the the best selling The Politically Incorrect Guide to Climate Change, shows how the movement  isn’t about the climate at all but rather about permanently locking down the free Western Hemisphere and dictating every aspect of our lives – especially how we are to think. The Green New Deal aims to be The Mother of all Lockdowns.

Power crackheads

The Left know their window of opportunity is closing quickly as citizens increasingly aren’t accepting the COVID-19 lockdown and panic. So to keep the panic and thus the power orgy going, they’re hoping to sustain it permanently by scaring the public with “climate crises”. Like crackheads, the enviro-leftists have gotten the taste of real power from the COVID lockdown, and now they intensely crave a lot more of it.

Will require “massive government intervention”

Morano rightfully portrays The Green New Deal as the greatest threat to liberty since Soviet-style communism, and he does so not based on opinions and anecdotes, but on history, facts and science. The book cites hundreds of scientific and journalistic sources.

“Even worse than you think”

Morano’s in-depth book shows how man-made climate change is not a threat, and that it is a made up problem whose pseudo-solution is a large-scale expansion of government power. And Green New Deal proponents openly say so. For example, Morano describes how Democrat congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (AOC) acknowledged her “deal” will require “massive government intervention.”

“It does, it does, yeah, I have no problem saying that,” Ocasio-Cortez told NPR’s Steve Inskeep in February 2019.

Morano: Green socialism already floundering in Europe

In Chapter 5, Morano exposes how the Green New Deal is floundering in Europe, which now suffers from astronomically high energy prices and grid instability. Despite all the hardship, Europe has in fact made very little progress on reducing emissions.

The failures of green energies in Europe are so glaring that it’s become an embarrassment that the activists across the Atlantic in the USA are scrambling to keep swept under the carpet.

Leftist pressure on Amazon to drop sale of book

So it’s no wonder the Left are now mobilizing to pressure Amazon to drop “Green Fraud”. Every book that the leftists can keep from being sold is probably one they won’t have to burn later.

Must read for policymakers

At 256 pages, it’s ideal for a weekend, and it is one you can send to your political representatives nationally, at the state-level and locally.

Western society is now at a crossroads. Complacency is not longer an option. If we are to save the liberty and democracy that have blessed us so well over the past generations, the only option left is action. Morano’s book makes that vividly clear.

Marc Morano is a former senior staff member of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, publisher of, author of The Politically Incorrect Guide to Climate Change (2018), and producer of Climate Hustle (2016) and Climate Hustle 2: Rise of the Climate Monarchy (2020).

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Devastating Drone Images Expose The Uselessness Of Wind Energy In Cold Weather

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A new study affirms 0.3 m (12 inches) of ice buildup along the tip of a wind turbine’s 50-meters-long blades during a typical ice storm dramatically reduces the blades’ capacity to rotate – even in very windy conditions. The averaged power production loss induced by this ice accretion reaches up to 80%.

Image Source:

The evidence that wind energy cannot reliably meet even the most fundamental need to keep us warm during harsh winter weather continues to accumulate. Nearly 4.5 million Texas residents experienced these grid failure consequences last month.

When a wind turbine blade spins in cold, wet weather, the ice buildup can span the length of the 50-meters-long blade, severely disturbing the aerodynamic balance of the entire 150-meters-tall machine.

Drone images from a new study (Gao et al., 2021) reveal the tips of blades can accumulate 300 mm of ice during an ice storm. Consequently, the blades may slow dramatically or even shut down altogether. The averaged power loss in an icing-induced slowing of blade rotation is 80% when compared to non-iced turbine blades.

In other words, when the weather is cold, wind turbines cannot be relied upon to supply us with the energy we need.

Image Source: Gao et al., 2021
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Greenland And Iceland Mean Winter Temperatures Continue Cooling Since Start Of The Century

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By Kirye
and Pierre

The February 2021 data for Iceland and Greenland are available from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), which means the latest meteorological DJF winter mean temperature can be computed.

Icelandic winters have cooled since 2001

We plotted the JMA data for three stations (the ones with sufficient data) in Iceland. Result: no warming over the past 18 winters!

Data: JMA

As you’ll notice, some winter data for Iceland are missing, but there’s enough to show us that winters there have been cooling, and not warming.

Earlier this year we plotted the annual data for these three Icelandic stations, and found 2 have cooled and the third was stable.

Data source: JMA

Obviously there has not been any warming at this North Atlantic island since the start of the century. The alarmists are screaming about nothing.

Greenland stations have cooled off

Next we go to Greenland, What follows are plots of JMA ANNUAL mean data for 6 stations on Greenland. A couple of the stations have data gaps, but they still can give us a pretty good idea as to what’s going on.

Data source: JMA.

In Greenland as well we find no real warming going on. It’s all been pretty stable since 2001.

And what about winters in Greenland? The six stations are plotted as follows:

Data source: JMA.

Once again the JMA data for Greenland is somewhat fragmented, but they certainly do a better job than Michael Mann’s tree rings. Altogether, there’s been nothing unusual happening up in Greenland during the winter this century.

2021 Arctic melt refuses to start 

Finally, this winter’s Arctic sea ice was still continuing its climb as of March 21st and reached it

Hat-tip: Schneefan.

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We’re Not Gonna Drown! Analyses Show COASTAL SEA LEVEL RISE Is Only 1.69 mm Per Year!

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UPDATE: Sea level rise near the coasts where people actually live is found to be 1.69 mm/yr. But when crunching the data for the entire ocean, as Willis Eschenbach has shown, a figure of just 1.52 mm/year is computed. 

Hot shot data analyst Zoe Phin at her site examines sea level rise.

There she notes, “Climate alarmists are worried that the sea level is rising too fast and flooding is coming soon. You can find many data images like this on the net:”

Lately the sea level has been rising 3.2 mm/year and some scientists say the rise is accelerating.

At her blog, Zoe points out that this is the rate measured by satellite for the entire ocean. She says what’s really important is the rate of rise along the coasts where it really matters for humans.

Examined data for grids adjacent to the coast

So she crunched the massive data volume for the surfaces near the coasts, downloading over a gigabyte of 720×361 gridded data covering 1950 to 2009.

She wrote: “I only examine those grid cells that are adjacent to land (2808 out of 259920).”

From her analysis she produced the following table and computed the rise for the seas near land.

Zoe’s result:

1.69 mm/year.

Thus the coastal trend is thus just half the total ocean trend claimed by scientists and the media.

Zoe’s findings agree nicely with tide gauges measurements, which also show sea level along the coasts rising only about half as quickly as the satellite altimetry suggests.

For example, in 2016 Dave Burton of site here found sea level rise measured by the world’s best long-term coastal tide gauges is just under +1.5 mm/yr (about 6 inches per century).”

But Willis Eschenbach here commented that he had downloaded the same file – but for the entire ocean – and found an average rise of 1.52 mm/year. So now the question begs: How are the scientists coming up with 3.2 mm/year?

Less than 1% of global tide gauges agree with IPCC 2100 projection

Not long ago NTZ contributor Kenneth Richard reported how less than 1% of the world’s 358 tide gauges were on track to meet IPCC’s 75 cm sea level rise by 2100.

US coastal sea level rise “slowing down”. 

Moreover, a recent study of 53 long-term tide gauges scattered on the US east and west coasts found that sea level rise has in fact slowed down.

In a nutshell: All the claims that we’re all going to drown seem to be flat out contradicted by data from along the coast.

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New Study Finds Clams Are Worse Off In Today’s Colder Waters And Lower Sea Levels

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Clams’ feeding activity, calcification rates, and overall shell density have declined in concert with decreasing sea surface temperatures and the long-term falling sea level trend since the Holocene peak about 6000 years ago.

A team of scientists (Cheli et al., 2021) have suggested Earth’s surface temperatures were “up to 4°C” warmer during the Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO) 9000 to 5000 years ago. Back when Holocene CO2 levels were only in the 265 ppm range (~6500 years ago), the northern Adriatic Sea’s surface temperatures are ~1.5°C warmer than they are now.

With the warmer sea surface temperatures, more water was locked up on land as ice instead of filling ocean basins. Consequently, the ocean coasts stretched much further inland compared to where they do today.

For example, the ancient biblical city of Ur used to sit on the coast of the Persian Gulf 6000 years ago, when sea levels were 2-3 meters higher than they are now – a highstand “almost wholly the consequence of the water-load term” (Lambeck, 1996). Today the remains of Ur’s coastal city past can be found about 200 km further inland from the modern shoreline.

Image Source: Lambeck, 1996

Cheli and colleagues have determined the Po (Italy) coastline in the northern Adriatic Sea has expanded seaward about 20-30 km since the Mid-Holocene due to the cooling SSTs and more extensive land glaciation that exists today.

As a consequence of the cooler sea surface temperatures and lowered sea levels, the clams residing in Po’s waters now have to contend with 2-6°C cooler riverine water temperatures, “increasing the metabolic cost for calcification” (Cheli et al., 2021) and weakening their shell density.

Image Source: Cheli et al., 2021

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JMA (Unaltered) Data Show Far Northern Europe February Mean Temperatures Are Not Warming

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By Kirye
and Pierre

We just looked at snow cover over the northern hemisphere for the first day of spring, and instead we see winter is still very much in action. The rapid global warming seems to be taking its time getting here as winter lingers on.

Today we take a look at February data from far northern Europe countries. First we look at the stations in Sweden for which the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has sufficient data going back to 1988:

Data: JMA

Four of the 5 stations examined show February mean temperatures cooling or remaining stable, suggesting winters are ending earlier and earlier.


Moving east to Finland, we look at the mean February temperature from JMA data from 6 stations: In a warming world, mid winter should also be warming, right?

Data: JMA

The northernmost stations in Finland have been showing modest cooling since 1988, while the warmer locations have shown slight warming. Taken altogether, there’s been no real trend change in Finland over the past 3 decades.

Nothing alarming is happening in Finland.


Next we examine the JMA February data for Norway, the Scandinavian country located next to the far north Atlantic, so possibly a good indicator of North Atlantic trends:

Data: JMA

Norwegian trends are a mixed bag: some stations are showing robust warming, while 6 of 11 show modest cooling or no trend. Here it’s opposite of Finland: the cold stations have warmed, while the warmer ones have cooled off a bit.


Finally we look at the JMA February data for Ireland:

Data: JMA

In Ireland, 2 of the 6 examined stations have shown warming since 1988, but so statistically insignificant that we can say it’s meaningless. Overall, Ireland February temperatures have cooled or remained almost steady over the past 33 years.

In summary the stations for which the JMA has sufficient data across northern Europe tell us that winters are not moderating like global warming models and media warned they would.

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