Munich Professor: Role Of Methane From Cows On Climate Exaggerated By A Factor Of 3 To 4!

Share this...

The impact of ruminants on climate has been overestimated by a factor of 3 to 4, according to Prof. Dr. Dr. habil Wilhelm Windisch of the Technical University of Munich. 

Methane from cows doesn’t effect climate anywhere near as much as alarmists claim, Munich professor says. Photo: Copyright P. Gosselin

Going without beef burgers is not going to impact the climate anywhere near as much as some like to claim. This is even confirmed by the IPCC (see below).

Hat-tip: Klimaschau

Climate alarmists and closet vegetarians like to claim that methane produced by cows plays a huge role in climate change, and so people need to eat much less beef and other meats from ruminants. Bill Gates even wants people to turn to fake, “synthetic meats”. But it’s all mostly hype and hysteria.

Near 5%, not 20%

According to Prof. Windisch, as reported by the Bavarian Agricultural Weekly News of November 25, 2021, “The role of ruminants with regards to climate protection has up to now been overestimated by at least a factor of 3 to 4. An enormous climate contribution to climate warming has been falsely attributed to ruminants: 15 to 20%.”

That means in reality the so-called contribution is closer to just 5%.

Moreover, according to the Klimaschau, the number of ruminants in Germany has not risen, data show.  In 1873, Germany had a total of 16 million ruminants. But in 2010, that number was down to 13 million.

Also, whatever methane that cows do emit ends up getting broken down in a matter of just a few years, the Klimaschau reports. Thus the system remains in equilibrium and so there’s little impact on climate.

Confirmed by the IPCC 6th Report

According to gvf Agrar: “It often goes unmentioned that the climate gases from agriculture come from balanced biogenic cycles and not from fossil fuels that transport additional CO2 into the atmosphere. This was also stated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in the first volume of the sixth IPCC Assessment Report.”




Share this...

Germany’s Fridays For Future Spokesperson: “We’re Planning How To Blow Up” African Oil Pipeline!

Share this...

Rich, privileged (white) eco-fanatic says her group is thinking about “how to ” blow up huge African oil pipeline!

Most of Europe’s climate activists come from rich families, who lavish in all the amenities the fossil fuel economy offers. No exception to this are Sweden’s Greta Thunberg, and Luisa “Longhaul” Neubauer of Germany.

Hat-tip: Junge Freiheit

Not only are they spoiled rich, leading pampered lives, but they’re also becoming dangerously fanatic it appears and even feel entitled to tell poor countries what they can and cannot have.

Recently Longhaul Luisa, spokesperson for Fridays for Future Germany, posted Sunday on Instagram with her Fridays for Future mates joking how right now they are planning on how to blow up” an African oil pipeline that will immensely improve the lives of among the world’s most needy.

“Of course we are thinking about how to blow up” the longest crude oil pipeline in the world, she professed on Instagram on Sunday.

Much needed Uganda-Tanzania pipeline

In the posted video, Neubauer is referring to the East African Crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP). The EACOP is currently under construction and, once completed, will transport crude oil from Uganda to Tanzania. It will be around 1,400 kilometers long and deliver around 216,000 barrels of oil per day.

White activists kicking Africans in the face?

We assume that Luisa and her crazed FFF radical group would be content to see poor Africans be denied even just a tiny fraction of the pampered life she herself is privileged to follow. She tells of the pipeline in the video: We’re going to stop that one.”




Share this...

Recent Greenland Cooling And Only ‘Limited Retreat’ Of Glaciers Since The Little Ice Age

Share this...

More evidence surfaces showing Greenland isn’t cooperating with the global warming narrative.

The notorious “Climategate” e-mail exchanges between activist scientists like Drs. Phil Jones and Tom Wigley revealed how grave a concern it was in 2004 that “GREENLAND HAS BEEN COOLING SIGNIFICANTLY” since the 1950s.

“…a warming trend occurred in the Nuuk fjord during the first 50 years of the 1900s, followed by a cooling over the second part of the century, when the average annual temperatures decreased by approximately 1.5°C.”
“…whatever the rest of the Northern Hemisphere may be doing, the part that holds the lion’s share of the hemisphere’s ice has been cooling for the past half-century, and at a very significant rate…”
“Greenland’s temperature trend of the past half-century has been just the opposite — and strikingly so — of that of which is claimed for the Northern Hemisphere and the world by the IPCC and its climate alarmist friends.”
“[Greenland cooling] presents these folks with a double problem, as they have historically claimed that high northern latitudes should be the first to exhibit convincing evidence of CO2-induced global warming.”
Image Source: FOIA

A 2016 analysis of Greenland ice sheet melt attribution indicated any contribution from anthropogenic climate forcing was still “too small to be detected”.

Image Source: Haine, 2016

NTZ recently highlighted a study showing (a) West and central Greenland cooled by about 1°C from 2010 to 2020 (see JRA55 SAT trend image), (b) Arctic sea ice melt has “slowed” or stalled since 2007 with “no new records” since 2012, and (c) Greenland warming peaks in 2012 but “is not evident during the last two decades”.

Image Source: Matsumura et al., 2021

Now a new study reports there has only been “limited retreat” of southeastern Greenland glaciers since the 1600s-1800s CE (Little Ice Age) maximum ice extent. There is evidence this same region “likely remained ice free” throughout the Early Holocene.

Iceberg rafting and low sea ice are indicative of climate trends over the Holocene. Notice the graphical image shows sea ice in this region is only slightly below the Little Ice Age peak and is still one of the higher extents of the last 9,000 years.

Also see the iceberg rafting trends (bottom graph). Rafting frequency increases due to warmer temperatures and rapid glacier melt, and the most recent iceberg rafting has also been among the lowest of the last 9,000 years.

Image Source: Andresen et al., 2022

As Professor Phil Jones wrote in 2004, “Clearly, someone forgot to tell Greenland what it’s supposed to be doing”.

Share this...

Greenland’s Summers Surprisingly Cooling Over Past Decade…Driven By Natural Oceanic Cycles

Share this...

Science Daily here reports: “Climate changes in the tropical Pacific have temporarily put the brakes on rapid warming and ice melting in Greenland.

Hat-tip: Klimaschau

Science Daily adds: “A puzzling, decade-long slowdown in summer warming across Greenland has been explained by researchers at Hokkaido University in Japan. Their observational analysis and computer simulations revealed that changes in sea surface temperature in the tropical Pacific Ocean, thousands of miles to the south, trigger cooler summer temperatures across Greenland. The results, published in the journal Communications Earth & Environment, will help improve future predictions of Greenland ice sheet and Arctic sea ice melting in coming decades.”

Greenland GC-Net Swiss Camp JJA summer temperatures. Source: Hanna et al, 2020. Temperatures have dropped off rapidly since 2012. Cropped from Klimaschau

Apparently this is connected to changes to the El Niño climate pattern in the Pacific, say the researchers, and these powerful Pacific cycles have ramifications for weather and climate patterns around the globe.

“The findings, and the slowdown in Greenland’s summertime warming, do not undermine the seriousness of climate change or the need to tackle greenhouse gas emissions,” Matsumura insists. But the scientists admit that the cooler summers in Greenland have been unexpected They also need to need to start admitting that they’ve been severely underestimating these powerful natural oceanic cycles, naively thinking that CO2 drives the whole show.

“We expect that global warming and ice sheet melting in Greenland and the rest of the Arctic will accelerate even further in the future due to the effects of anthropogenic warming,” Matsumura says.

And Matsumura will keep telling us that – until, that is, the next natural cycles bury man’s modest impact once again. A trace gas is no match for the gigantic, still mysterious thermal fluxes of the oceans…a phenomenon for which we have little historical data and remains poorly understood.

Also read here.




Share this...

German Economics Expert Sees 6 Formidable Problems With Germany’s Green Energy Push

Share this...

Leading German economist Hans Werner Sinn sees 6 major problems with Europe’s green energy transition (Energiewende) and warns other nations against following the German energy model.

Problem no. 1: The Paris Accord is non-binding

The Paris Accord in fact has been signed by only 61 of 191 nations and so pledge to reduce their emissions, i.e. more than two thirds of the globe’s nations are not obliged to do anything.

This will simply allow the rich signatories to outsource their emissions to unconstrained nations. China and India both end up with a free pass. The Paris Accord will have no effect on global emissions and citizens of rich countries will be forced to make huge sacrifices. We’re seeing it today already.

Problem No. 2: EU targets are “utopian”

The former IFO head calls the EU’s targets “utopian” and adds: “Germany at the same time wants to exit coal and nuclear power, thus making itself dependent on other nations.” Like Russia.

The belief that the EU can power itself solely using volatile renewables like wind and sun is kept alive purely by “propaganda media”. In fact it is doomed to fail.

Problem No. 3: Volatile energy supply

Prof. Sinn explains that another major problem is: “Electricity from wind and sun is too volatile to assure an affordable and complete power supply. Even if Germany doubles it’s current wind and solar production capacity, doing so will only double the volatility of the supply:

As the chart above shows, a doubling of the 2019 wind and solar capacity would lead to numerous times of severe oversupply and periods of extreme undersupply for Germany’s roughly average 60 GW of demand. Chart cropped here.

Problem No. 4: Innovation through government decreed central planning?

“Europe is squeezing out the auto industry and violating the law of ‘one price’. The market as a discovery process to innovate low CO2 technologies is being shut down,” Sinn explains.

Instead of allowing the market to naturally find the best and most efficient solutions, Brussels is simply doing it by decree. In the end, we’ll end up with a failed centrally-planned economy.

Problem No. 5: E-cars are not clean

One problem today already, using Germany’s current electric energy supply mix, electric cars are emitting far more CO2 over their lifetimes than conventional combustion engine vehicles.

Even after 150,000 km of driving, a diesel Golf-class car emits less CO2. Chart: H.W. Sinn

Yet, governments are aiming to force citizens to drive e-cars. In many countries, this will lead to more CO2 emissions, and not less.

Problem No. 6:  Europe going without fossil fuels will have zero global impact 

According to Prof. Sinn: “With tradable fossil fuels, Europe going without will not have just a tiny effect, but rather have no effect.”

Whatever fuels Europe opts not to use, other countries will simply burn them instead. As long as global oil production keeps growing, so will CO2 emissions – no matter what Europe does, decrees or decides

Summary

Sinn wraps up his presentation with a warning for Europe: “Europe’s unilateralism with climate policy will undermine the competitiveness of its industries, initiate its downfall and thus discourage other countries from following the the European – and especially the German – approach.”




Share this...

South America’s Sea Levels Were Multiple Meters Higher And SSTs 2-5°C Warmer Until Recent Centuries

Share this...

Several new and recent studies have affirmed that the waters surrounding South America – from Peru to Chile to Argentina to Brazil – were several degrees warmer and sea levels multiple meters higher than today until the Little Ice Age centuries.

A new study suggests ~4,000 to 5,000 years ago coastal Argentina’s sea surface temperatures were 18.5 to 22.5°C. Modern mean SST are 17°C in this region, which is 2-5°C colder. Back then, marine species could survive 1,000 km south of where they do today, and sea levels were 3-4 meters higher.

Image Source: Richiano et al., 2022

Another new study affirms that the coast of Brazil in the equatorial Atlantic has been expanding seaward both in recent centuries and for the last several millennia. Relative sea level was between 3 and 4.6 m higher than today between 7,000 and 5,000 years ago before rapidly receding to today’s levels.

A rock formation has biomarker (corals) evidence that sea levels were still ~2 meters higher than today as recently as “908 to 748 cal aBP” (see photo).

Image Source: Angulo et al., 2022

A 2021 study (Cruz et al.) used microvertebrate fossils to determine Pampas, Argentina’s surface temperatures were “between 1.7°C and 4.4°C…higher than the current” during the 19th century.

Image Source: Cruz et al., 2021

The southern tip of South America’s sea surface temperatures have undergone “marked cooling” during the last 800 years, with “particularly low [temperatures] during the most recent decades” (Bertrand et al., 2017). The reconstruction indicates temperatures have fallen nearly 4°C in the 900 years.

Image Source: Bertrand et al., 2017

Also in the last 900 years (“since ~0.9 cal ka BP”) Chilean sea surface temperatures (SST) have undergone “a very strong decrease in SST of ca. 2°C…over a period of ~300 year” (Caniupan et al., 2014), and the colder temperatures have remained “comparatively low” to the present.

Image Source: Caniupan et al., 2014

Another reconstruction of southern Chile’s sea surface temperature record has temperatures falling 2.2°C over the last 1,000 years, or from 14.3°C during the Medieval Warm Period to 12.1°C today. SSTs were still about 1°C warmer than today during the 1600s before abruptly falling to today’s colder temperatures.

Image Source: Collins et al., 2019

Sea surface temperatures along the coast of northern Peru were “~4°C warmer than present-day SST” during the last 3 to 4 millennia before rapidly cooling to today’s much colder temperatures (Salvatteci et al., 2019). Notice the reconstructions in both “i” and “j” indicate the SSTs of the most recent 50 years (black stars) are the coldest of the last 10,000 years.

Image Source: Salvatteci et al., 2019

The presence of hake fish remains at 53°S (southernmost South America) dating to the Middle Holocene suggests temperatures needed to have been 11-12°C at that time given the warmth demands of this species (Bas et al., 2020). This latitude now has SSTs 4-5°C colder (7°C) than the Middle Holocene, and hake can only be found in waters north of 47°S today.

Image Source: Bas et al., 2020

Sea levels along the coasts of Brazils reached “up to +5 meters [higher than today] between 6 and 5 ka b2k” (Lopes et al., 2020). The presence of a warmth-demanding shark species remains at latitudes much colder than the water temperatures they can tolerate today also suggests regional SSTs were much warmer a few millennia ago.

Image Source: Lopes et al., 2020
Share this...

Analysis Of Data Going Back 40 Years Shows CO2 Has No Effect On Forest Fires,…Burned Area Plummets Since 2000

Share this...

In a previous post, Trend in Global Fires, data analyst Zoe Phin showed the global fire trend for the last 21 years.

Since then, Zoe has taken it it a step further and found a source with more data going back to 1982: from a project funded by European Space Agency. RHere. Actual data is downloaded from UK servers, here.

Here’s what Zoe found:

Burned area has plummeted since 2000.

“It’s obvious that carbon dioxide has zero effect on fires, Zoe rightfully points out. “Anyone who tells you otherwise is a liar, an imbecile, or just plain ignorant. The latter can be cured.”

Visit Zoe’s site!




Share this...

“Unspiked”: The Search For Term Describing COVID-Unvaccinated Persons…”Pure Blood” Deemed Too Offensive

Share this...

The unvaccinated are now envied, having steadfastly held their ground. The search for a terms to describe these proud individuals include “pure bloods” or “true bloods”.

For those of you who chose not to be vaccinated with the new mRNA Corona vaccines, like myself, you’re likely proud you withstood the massive pressure to do so.

Today we feel vindicated as it emerges that the vaccines were greatly overrated at best. There’s little evidence that these vaccines even make the disease more mild. Vaccinated and boostered persons ended up getting COVID anyway, thus contradicting claims made like those in the following propaganda video:

 

There are also the poorly understood long-term side effects that the media and proponents are attempting to keep a lid on. Are there serious long-lasting effects? For the unvaccinated, it’s a question we won’t need to worry about because our blood has not been tainted.

Some among the unvaccinated are so proud of their status, in fact, that they are now labeling themselves with such terms like “true blood” or “pure blood”. There are reports that some are wearing red masks to show their unvaccinated status, though I haven’t been able to confirm this.

Not surprisingly, in a desperate reach, mRNA vaccine proponents are accusing those calling themselves “pure blood” of flirting with racism and Nazism. Ironically, those who earlier were hell-bent on identifying, singling out, branding and persecuting the unvaccinated, are now complaining that we’re boasting about our hard-fought-for status. Ironically it is many vaccinated people are now quiet – if not embarrassed – about their status.

Unspiked

Okay, a term that’s better than “pure blood” is probably not a bad idea we want to avoid anything that’ll offend the über-sensitive woke crowd. I suggest calling ourselves “unspiked”, a term I’ve just added in my FaceBook profile. It’s the term I started using when asked about my vaccination status. Unlike the fully vaccinated, us unspiked are not running around with our bloodstream filled with spike protein and we didn’t allow ourselves to be spiked with an experimental medicine that today we know is not as safe as claimed earlier.

If there are other terms used to describe the unvaccinated, or symbols that can be worn to convey that message, leave them in the comments below. In the meantime, I’m quite proud to call myself “unspiked” or “untainted”.




Share this...

Alarmists: Clouds May ‘Disappear Forever’ With Warming. Observations: Clouds Increase As It Warms.

Share this...

A new study finds the modeling-based claim that cloud cover changes are only responding to anthropogenic CO2 forcing as a feedback – and not functioning independently as a forcing – has (again) been contradicted by observations.

Since this is a water planet, and since clouds are formed when water vapor turns into water droplets, it is a tad disconcerting we are now being warned by the “expert” class that clouds may “disappear forever” as the Earth warms.

Image Source: indiatimes.com

Of course, even a casual observation of the seasonal cloud cover variations affirms that clouds increase in Arctic summer (warmer) and decrease in winter (cooler).

“Winter cloud occurrence…was 70%. It increased to over 80% the summer months and reached a 95% peak in September” (Maillard et al., 2021).

Image Source: Maillard et al., 2021

Further, a decline in cloud cover means more solar radiation is absorbed by the surface, leading to a net positive forcing (warming) because the shortwave effects of cloud albedo modulation exceed the longwave effects of clouds.

For example (staying with the Arctic), the increase in shortwave forcing associated with the decline in cloud cover in recent decades amounted to +7.3 W/m² positive imbalance from 1994-2017 over the Greenland ice sheet (Hahn et al., 2020). This is the dominant reason for the Greenland ice sheet melt over this period.

Image Source: Hahn et al., 2020

Now, another new study shows cloud cover clearly declined globally from 1983-2017. The mechanism driving the change in cloud cover is unknown, but other scientists have chalked it up to “internal unforced variability“.

The nearly 4 decades of falling cloud cover resulted in a net positive radiative forcing, heavily contributing to global warming over this period.

In contrast, IPCC climate models claim clouds only respond to (positive feedback) CO2 rise, or warming. But, as noted, the opposite occurs in observations: clouds increase as it warms, and increasing clouds leads to (net) cooling.

Therefore, the data clearly show “the cloud cover decrease could not have been caused by the increased surface temperature…and was not caused directly or indirectly by CO2” (Jonas, 2022).

So the models are wrong. Cloud feedback is negative. CO2 doesn’t cause the cloud changes, and thus an increase in shortwave forcing associated with a decline in cloud cover also occurs independently of CO2 or human influences. Consequently, “climate models and the IPCC over-estimate the effect of the atmospheric CO2 change.”

Image Source: Jonas, 2022
Share this...

Global Surface Temperatures Have Cooled 0.5°C Since 2016

Share this...

The globe continues cooling off since surface temperatures peaked from the 2015/16 El Nino.

The NCEP/GFS analysis shows May to be the coldest month globally so far this year and the coldest May since 2015, with a deviation in 2m temperatures of only about 0.38°C from the outdated (colder) WMO climate mean 1981-2010.

Hat-tip: Schneefan

Source: Global Temperatures

Especially the Southern Hemisphere (SH) has cooled strongly (blue line). The new solar minimum, La Niña, and the Tonga volcano are working to further cool the globe. The data in the graph above were also “adjusted” using the NASA/GISS warming factor, but are significantly lower in unadulterated reality.

UAH cooling

The global cooling trend since 2016 is also confirmed by the unbiased satellite data from UAH in May 2022.

Source: Dr. Roy Spencer UAH Global Temperature

The UAH unbiased satellite data centered around 1500 m (TLT) show that May 2022 is only ranked as 7th mildest May, with a +0.17°C deviation from the 1991-2020 WMO global climate mean, thus continuing the negative trend since 2016 (blue trend line):

Add to this the huge eruption of the Tonga volcano in January 2022, which also contributes somewhat to global cooling with its SO2 cloud up to 19km high.

One may state: After a so far average temperate and average wet year 2022 in Germany, no model expects a heat or drought summer in Germany.

As far as central Europe is concerned, no models are currently projecting a hot summer plagued by drought and heat.




Share this...

Germany’s DWD National Weather Service Just Can’t Say Good Bye To Old, Cooler 1961-1990 Reference Period

Share this...

By Die kalte Sonne

It remains difficult with the weather or climate and the reference periods.

The German DWD weather service, for example, still finds it difficult to work with the new period 1991-2020 reference and simply cannot say good bye the old 1961-1990 period. Looking back at May 2022, both were used again. According to the DWD, May 2022 was too dry and too warm in Germany. Compared to the currently valid period by 1.3 degrees. Why in the press release the no longer relevant (1961-1990 period gets taken first remains a mystery. It is said that there are people who still calculate in deutschmarks, and not the euro, which was introduced 20 years ago.

Excerpt from the DWD press release:

At 14.4 degrees Celsius (°C), the average temperature in May 2022 was 2.3 degrees above the value of the internationally valid reference period 1961 to 1990. Compared to the current and warmer period 1991 to 2020, the positive deviation was 1.3 degrees. At the beginning of the month, the thermometer dropped partly into the light frost range under the influence of high pressure, often clear skies and the associated nighttime radiation in the north as well as in the south of Germany. Faßberg in the Lüneburg Heath recorded the lowest value in Germany on the 4th with -2.5 °C.

The ‘Ice Saints’ didn’t make it, not appearing this year. To the contrary, high “Wolf” and its successor “Xenophon” brought us early summerlike temperatures of almost 30°C in the second decade of the month. The influx of subtropical air masses from North Africa further increased the heat, especially in the south. Locally, there were record temperatures for May. Ohlsbach, northeast of Freiburg im Breisgau, recorded the highest temperature in Germany on the 20th with 33.7°C. Here, 13 people died in the month of May and 13 summer days (>25°C) and four hot days (>30°C) were recorded in the month. However, the midsummer intermezzo was short-lived, as a northwesterly flow subsequently brought cooler temperatures.”




Share this...

Old German 1970s Hit Reminisces Of The Hot Summers Of The 1940s And 1950s

Share this...

Most readers here already know NASA rewrote the temperature records to make the warm period of the 1930s and 40s and the cold spell of the 60s, 70s and 80s disappear. But they can’t make everything disappear, especially old newspaper articles and old hit songs that remind us of hot summers of the past.

An old German song by Rudi Carrell, for example, from 1975 not only reminds us of just how cool and dreadful German summers were in the 1970s, but also how much warmer they had been a couple of decades prior, i.e. in 1940s and 50s.

The title of the song: “When’s it gonna be really summer again”

In the 1975 hit song, Mr Carrell reminisces about the much warmer summers he used to know from earlier decades, which by 1975 had disappeared. Born in 1934, Carrell likely refers to the summers he had experienced in the 1940s and 50s, a period that obviously was also similarly warm as it is today in Germany warm.

What follows are the lyrics in English of Carrell’s song, of course the rhyming gets lost in translation”

We never needed a long trip before
We got tanned on Borkum and on Sylt
But today the tanned ones are only white
Cause here now it’s really cold
Yes, in the old days no heating was needed
The outdoor swimming pool was already open in May
I sat in front of our house until late at night
And, we still got sunburned
And there were giant jellyfish on the beach, and ice cream
And every lifeguard took off his jacket

When will it be summer again,
A summer like it used to be?
Yes, with sunshine from June to September
And not so wet and so Siberian, like last year

And what  
Sweater factories were shut down
There it was up to forty degrees in the shade
We had to be sparing with the water
The sun beat down on our faces
There was no need for any sauna
A sheep was happy to be sheared back then
It used to be like Africa here
It was possible to go nude
But today, all the mosquitoes hum loudly in chorus

When will it ever be summer again
A summer like it used to be?
Yes, with sunshine from June to September
And not so wet and so Siberian, like last year

The winter was the failure of the century
Only above a thousand meters was there snow
My milkman says: “This climate here, who’s surprised?”
It’s all the fault of the SPD
I think that’s going a bit far
But soon it’s vacation time again
And who among us doesn’t think about it all the time?
In spite of everything, I still believe
That the weather will get better
But when, and this is a question that concerns us all

When will it really be summer again
A summer like it used to be?
Yes, with sunshine from June to September
And not so wet and so Siberian, like last year”

Yes, that’s the kind of music Oma und Opa listened to back in the day.

Obviously the summers of the 70s in Germany were cool and gray, and Germans longed for the warmer, sunnier summers they had experienced in the previous decades.

So far this year, summer has started on the tame side. Hopefully Carrell’s song won’t be making a comeback.




Share this...

By continuing to use the site, you agree to the use of cookies. more information

The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this. More information at our Data Privacy Policy

Close