28 January, 2017 – Now updated to 133 papers
In 2014, there were at least 93 peer-reviewed scientific papers published in scientific journals affirming the Sun’s influential role in climate change.
In 2015, there were at least 95 scientific papers affirming the Sun-Climate link.
Already in 2016, there have been over 100 papers (107 to date) published in science journals affirming the link between solar forcing and climate change. The list of papers and brief excerpts (from the abstracts, introductions, and/or conclusions) is provided below.
The Sun’s Influence On Climate: ‘Settled’ Science?
It has long been claimed that the science is “settled”, that the Sun’s role in climate change is negligible at best.
The Sun no longer causes net global-scale changes in deep ocean heat. Humans do that now. By emitting carbon dioxide, it is claimed that humans have predominantly caused (or will cause) net global-scale changes in precipitation, extreme weather events (hurricanes, tornadoes, droughts, floods…), water vapor, clouds, sea level, and, of course, atmospheric and surface temperatures. According to some interpretations (i.e., NASA’s Gavin Schmidt), the IPCC apparently estimates that the anthropogenic attribution to climate change is essentially 100% (or more), and the Sun’s influence in forcing net changes in the climate system is effectively zero.
Of course, a 0% attribution for solar forcing assumes that we presently know enough already about the Sun and how it influences terrestrial climate change and ocean heat flux. It assumes that we are and have been accurately calculating the response of the climate system to variations in absorbed solar heat energy, and that we are and have been accurately measuring absorbed solar heat energy. It assumes there is little uncertainty and there are no consequential errors in our reconstructions and modeling of solar radiative forcing over time (or recently).
The popularized insistence by advocates that a 100% attribution for anthropogenic climate forcing is “settled” science necessarily implies that skepticism concerning the claim that there is effectively no Sun-Climate link is unwarranted and antagonistically feckless. Those who do dare question the profundity of our present scientific knowledge of the Sun-Climate link deserved to be ridiculed, marginalized, and compared to Holocaust deniers.
Fortunately, there are still some scientists willing to admit that we still don’t know all that much about the Sun’s role in climate change. For example, Dhomse et al. (2016) acknowledge that the Sun’s role in climate change is still “an open scientific question” due to the immense difficulties in accurately quantifying the Sun’s influence.
[T]here are still large [uncertainties] in current observational and meteorological reanalysis datasets, so accurate quantification of the influence of solar flux variability on the climate system remains an open scientific question.
And below, there are literally hundreds of scientists who have dared to continue trying to disentangle the Sun’s role in climate changes — and who have wound up finding robust connections. Perhaps someday the IPCC will consider scientific papers like these in their reports rather than continue to operate on the presupposition that our scientific knowledge of the Sun’s role in climate change is not only substantial, but sufficient.