Analysis By German Experts Expose 350.Org Lake Baikal Flawed Claims …Temperatures In Truth “Stagnated Since 1988″

Water shortages at Lake Baikal: climate activists ignore important climate cycles

By Dr. Sebastian Lüning and Prof. Fritz Vahrenholt
[Translated, edited by P. Gosselin]

Not long ago we corresponded with the Helmholtz Asscoiation over a somewhat botched article about Lake Baikal. They simply assumed that the climate at the lake had been constant before industrialization – a fatal flaw.

On May 6, 2015 the activist groups of 350.org and Global Voices followed and committed similar flaws when they misinterpreted the current climate changes as “unique” and as “something that had never occurred before“. At Global Voices we read [translated from the German]:

According to experts, climate change is the cause of Russia’s shrinking Lake Baikal.
[…] The Russian Minister had clear words for the drop in the water level: ‘The climate’. So what on earth has happened with the climate? Experts assume that precipitation amounts in the Baikal region fluctuate in cycles of several decades. What is now happening, however, is clearly out of the pattern of normal variation. At the end of March the water level for example fell 9 cm below the critical value. Such a water shortage has not been observed in over 100 years. According to the Ministry for Catastrophe Protection, the water amount finding its way into the lake in the summer and fall of 2014 was only 65% of the climatic normal. The drying of Lake Baikal is taking place within the backdrop of a dramatic climate change in Russia: According to the Rosgidromet Meteorological Center, the rise in the mean temperature occurred here 2.5 times faster than it has globally. Climate change is leading to a rapid rise in the frequency of natural catastrophes, including drought.”

It’s nice to see that activists are at least recognizing precipitation cycles on a decadal scale. However they fail to take the longer term hundred-year or millennial cycles into account. The lowest lake water level in the last 100 years? That is only a tenth of a 1000-year cycle that is clearly described in the literature. See: “Study by the University of Alberta: 1000-year climate cycles triggered by solar activity fluctuations“ or “Climate at Lake Baikal pulsed in sync with the sun over the past 5000 years“.

In January, 2015, Sputnik News discussed the reasons for the water shortage. In addition to a pronounced drought in the previous year, also the hydropower plant removed too much water from the lake:

Over the past twelve months the lake water has dropped a record 40 cm to a sixty-year low — just shy of the critical mark of 456m. Some experts blame this on the local energy companies, but officials and biologists attribute the drop to last year’s drought.”

No word on this at 350.org/Global Voices. Instead they prefer to dramatize the warming of the past 70 years:

Lake Baikal is indeed warming. According to a study published already in 2008, the temperature of the surface water of Lake Baikal has risen already 1.21°C since 1946.”

Why do the activists cite a study from 2008 when there is more up-to-date data available that extends to today? Why the seven-year omission? We want to know more about this and so we look at the Lake Baikal GISS temperature record for the past 130 years at New Scientist:

The answer: In 2007 there was an extreme warm peak that obviously some people wanted to fully use in the statistic. In truth the temperatures have been falling again at Lake Baikal since 2004, measured with the 5-year running mean. In principle temperatures at Lake Baikal already have stagnated since 1988. Moreover the activists failed to mention that 1000 years ago, during the Medieval Warm Period, Lake Baikal was once similarly warm as it is today, perhaps with similar warming spells during the transition phase.

Twice As Much Snow Falling In The Russian Ural Mountains Than 100 Years Ago…Leading To More Tree Growth

German public radio Deutschlandfunk (DLF) reported earlier this year that scientists have discovered that twice as much snow has been falling in the Ural Mountains than 100 years ago.

Ural

Yugyd Va National Park. Public domain photo.

Hat-tip: Die kalte Sonne here.

The DLF reports:

Ural: snow causing the tree line to rise.
Climate change does not only mean that the temperature is increasing, it can also change the precipitation patterns. In the Ural Mountains of Russia significantly more snow is falling in the wintertime than 100 years ago. The development is having surprising consequences: The bigger amounts of snow is causing the tree line to rise. […]

In the summertime in the Urals its has not gotten notably warmer over the past 100 years. The wintertime temperatures, however, have increased from minus 18°C to minus 16°C. Warmer low pressure systems are bringing more precipitation to the mountains. In the Urals today twice as much snow is falling than 100 years ago. And that is having an impact on the treeline.”

According to the DLF, a team of German and Russian scientists say the tree line is currently rising at a rate of about 4 to 6 meters per decade.

The scientists believe that the doubled snowfall serves to protect young saplings during the winter and allow soil conditions that foster growth during the summer time. Photos of the region has allowed the scientists to determine treelines that today are up to 60 meters higher than 100 years ago.

 

Embarassing Revelations For Kelley et al…2008 German Radio Already Showed Focus On Climate Change Was Misplaced

The Kelley et al study is increasingly looking like a politically bought panic paper, designed to send out a certain message and mislead the public.

What is especially tragic about the whole nonsense is that the paper only serves to shift the focus away from the real causes behind the worsening tragedy in the Syrian region.

A couple of days ago I wrote about a Spiegel piece that shredded the paper and exposed it as very shoddy work of science.

At Twitter the author of the Spiegel piece, Axel Bojanowski, got a reply from another rather high caliber German journalist, Gabor Paal, who confirms that the situation in Syria has much less to do with climate change, and much more to do with lousy land-use and agricultural practices.

On March 7 Bojanowski wrote:

Did climate change really spark the Syria War as claimed? The basis for that is flimsy.”

On March 9, Paal responded to Bojanowski:

@Axel_Bojanowski I was in Syria in 2008. Scientists acquired funding with reference to ‘climate change’. Land-use was clearly the bigger problem.”

So what we have here is yet another journalist casting grave doubt on the claims made by Kelley et al.

Paal provided the link to a 2008 radio documentary on Syria he had produced with the focus on the crop failures that the Middle Eastern country had been experiencing and their causes. The radio documentary was featured at SWF South German Broadcasting. Throughout the documentary the emphasis on the reasons for the crop problems in Syria was squarely on land-use and poor agricultural practices, with climate change not playing any real role.

The documentary begins by explaining how Syria is divided into 5 different climate zones. In Zone 5, the largest and most arid, groundwater has been pumped out to such an extent that vegetation can no longer thrive. At the 10-minute mark:

More than half the country belongs to Zone 5, the steppes and desert region. Here it rains less than 200 mm per year. Zone 5 is government property. There are no privets lots. Agriculture would be possible here only with irrigation, but the water table has dropped so much that the steppes have become so barren that the government has forbidden all use. The blame for this is not climate change, but rather the way the land is managed.”

The documentary explains how 75% of all farmers raise sheep to earn a living, and that millions of sheep are living where less than 150 mm of rain falls yearly. Vegetation has no chance. “15 – 20% of the steppes are lost and maybe we cannot recover them.” The documentary adds that there are 15 million sheep in Syria and that the figure is 4 times more than 10 years ago.

“Media fixated on climate”

Another problem the region faced, Paal said, was the threat of the UG 99 fungus that threatened the region’s grain crop.

At the very end of the SWR report Paal stated:

In the public media reporting, agricultural research has not made any progress. The media are fixated on climate and the focus on the ground beneath their feet has been lost. And now in the wake of the food crisis, international agricultural reseach has the chance to benefit once again.”

Today, some 7 years later, Kelley et al tells us that this has not come to pass – tragically. The focus still remains on the bogus problem of climate change and people are suffering more unimaginable misery than ever because of it.

Someone needs to go to jail.

 

Spiegel Demolishes Syria War-Climate Change Paper By Kelley et al. …”Hardly Tenable” … “Distraction From Real Problems”

Spiegel science journalist Axel Bojanowski here looks at the new paper Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought,” PNAS, March 2, 2015 by Kelley et al, which claims the 2007−2010 drought contributed to the war in the region.

A number of major news outlets, such as the New York Times and the AP were quick to uncritically dispense it as gospel truth.

Anthony Watts provides good background here.

Spiegel’s view is much more critical and skeptical of the paper’s findings and overall methodology when compared to the New York Times or AP. The online German magazine writes:

An alarming study has created a commotion worldwide. The authors claim that climate change contributed to the drought and civil war in Syria. However this claim is hardly tenable.”

Models in wide disagreement

Bojanowski writes that the decisive evidence in the paper is based on climate models, which show drier conditions for Syria as the greenhouse effect intensifies. However Bojanowski later points out that the climate system in Syria is highly complex and that even the IPCC questions the capability of models reliably simulating the climate system of Syria and that the models are in wide disagreement:

The region lies on the boundary of three climate regions where the weather patterns are hardly understood, the IPCC report says. Foremost the climate simulation models diverge widely from each other when it comes to precipitation. It thus appears unwarranted to use the results of models as a way of confirming the effect of greenhouse gases, believes [William]Briggs.”

Sparse data

Another problem with the study, Spiegel reports, is that the data used were way too sparse, and quoted climate scientist Tim Brücher of the Max Planck Institute for Meterology: “The data should have been handled more critically.”

“Renders a poor service on behalf of climate science”

Probably seeing the paper more as an embarrassment rather than a contribution to science, even warmist institutes were unable to refrain from critique. Bojanowski quotes Thomas Bernauer, a conflict researcher at ETH in Zürich: “The entire paper is problematic as it renders a poor service on behalf of climate science.”

“Study is problematic at a number of levels”

In total Bojanowski says scientists criticize the paper on five aspects, saying that after the criticism, nothing is really left of the paper. According to Spiegel, University of Hamburg expert Tobias Ide says, “The study is problematic at a number of levels.” Peace scientist Christiane Fröhlich of the same university says the civil war “had more to do with wealthy citizens provoking it“.

“A distraction” from the real causes

Francesca De Châtel, Syria expert at Radboud University in Nijmegen, called the paper “a distraction” from the real causes of the war, and pointed out that drought periods are more the norm for the region. The problems stem foremost from land mismanagement and shoddy agricultural practices. Bojanowski quotes De Châtel: “The role of climate change is not only irrelevant, emphasizing it is even damaging.”

No evidence linking drought to civil war

Also Norwegian doctoral candidate Ole Magnus Theisen states that there is no evidence of a relationship between drought and conflict, Spiegel writes.

Bojanowski adds that “the climate argument allows politicians to blame others outside of the country for the hunger.” The Spiegel journalist sums up the science of tying climate change to war in general:

The main causes of civil wars are political. The future security of Africa does not depend on climate, rather on political and economic development.”

In summary one would not be wrong in concluding that the PNAS was definitely asleep during the review of the paper. Hard to get any shoddier.

Spiegel report here.

 

Spiegel: Mongolia’s Shrinking Lakes Due To Mining, Agriculture – “Climate Change Not A Reason”!

Online Spiegel reports on a new study published in the PNAS titled: Rapid loss of lakes on the Mongolian Plateau.

Over the recent decades, satellite-based evaluations are showing that the Mongolian Plateau has been experiencing “remarkable lake shrinkage” because of “intensive human activities and climate changes“, the study claims.

Mongolia public domain image

Disappearing lakes due to mining and agriculture since the 1980s threaten Mongolia’s nomadic culture. Climate change not a factor, Spiegel writes. Image: Public domain.

The researchers, Spiegel writes, “are warning of catastrophic consequences.”

The shrinkage of the lakes over the Mongolian Plateau poses a real threat to nomadic societies, the scientists warn.

Yet Spiegel writes that the shrinking of the number of lakes in the region is not because of climate change.

Spiegel writes:

The number of lakes with a surface area of one square kilometer or more shrank from the end of the 1980s to 2010 from 785 to 577. And the trend seems to be strengthening.”

But according to Spiegel the major culprit is not climate change, as the authors suggest in the paper’s abstract, but rather has mostly to do with agriculture and large-scale mining operations. Spiegel writes (my emphasis).

The scientists investigated the reasons for the desertification – climate change is not among them. In sparsely populated Mongolia the number of lakes fell since the 1980s by about 18 percent. In the interior of Mongolia, which has a population density that is 10 times higher, the rate was almost twice as high at 34 percent.”

Spiegel writes that the biggest factor is the growing mining industry in the mineral rich country. Expanding agriculture is also responsible for reduced groundwater levels. The scientists recommend quick action be taken to “save the valuable lakes“, meaning better guidelines for companies conducting operations there.

It’s somewhat refreshing that the Chinese researchers are not advocating modern rain-dancing acts, like installing solar panels on homes in Alaska or Scandinavia to combat the problem.

 

Part 2 Of Documentary Totally Dismisses/Contradicts Michael Mann’s Claim Of A Steady Climate Since 1000 A.D.

Yesterday I posted on Part 1 of German ZDF television’s Terra-X series two-part documentary on climate and human history appearing on January 11  and 18. Part 1 covered the world’s climatic changes that occurred during the last ice age and up to the time of the Roman Empire.

Part 1 clearly showed that the earth’s climate changed naturally, at times very dramatically within a matter of a decade or two. Warm periods were accompanied by rains and periods of vibrant human prosperity. Cold periods saw droughts, crop failures, mass migrations and deadly political and societal instability.

Warm Roman Empire

Today the focus is on Part 2, which looks at the earth’s climate since the Roman Empire until today. It starts by stating how the “paradise-like” warmth during peak period of the Roman Empire was brought on by the optimal orientation between the earth and sun. The warm Roman period was marked by “stability” says Mark Maslin (3:10).

Tree ring studies from oak trees show that “the temperature 100 year before Christ indeed rose. On average the temperature was 2°C warmer than 100 years earlier” (3:37). Clearly such an increase is more than double today’s increase the globe has seen since 1900. That high Roman temperature level stayed some 300 years, the documentary tells us, allowing for “stable and strong growth“.

At the 4:30 mark the documentary tells us that glaciers in the Alps melted and allowed the Romans to expand their empire all the way to Scotland. The warm period also took hold globally, says the ZDF documentary, and was not a regional phenomena. The ZDF documentary shows at the 5:40 mark how the Chinese Empire blossomed at around 200 BC. All thanks to the sun.

Finally at the 8:24 mark German researcher Gunther Hischfelder of the University of Regensburg tells that the Romans eventually ran into an enemy they even could not vanquish: “Over the long-term there was one opponent that became so strong that even the Romans could not conquer it, and that was climate change.”

Always the sun

Surprisingly at the 8:38 mark, the ZDF documentary tells viewers something that has long been taboo in Germany:

Every climate change is controlled from outer space. It depends on the earth’s orbit around the sun, the tilt of its axis and on the predominant solar activity. After the change in times the solar activity was probably weaker and the Gulf current delivered less heat.”

This, the documentary says, led to a “clear [natural] cooling (9:00)“. Already in Part 2 we see that climate temperature changes of 2°C over a matter of decades were nothing unusual – and were all owing to natural factors that scientists today refuse to acknowledge are in play.

Cold…fall of Roman Empire

As the cooler temperatures began to take over during the Roman period, catastrophic droughts took hold and crop failures led to starvation. Rome was under pressure to supply food to its remote territories and outposts.

To illustrate the degree hardship, scientists analyzed the bones of a north German teenager uncovered from the swamps(10:10). DNA analysis of the arm and leg bones showed severe malnutrition. Twelve of the child’s 14 years were spent in a state of “severe hunger”. As had happened many times over the course of history, mass migrations occurred as cold led to crop failures.

Just before the end of the Roman Empire, these migrations were facilitated as natural borders and barriers such as large rivers and marshes froze over and allowed people easily walk across them (11:40).  For example in the year 406 AD, 90,000 Germanic tribespeople crossed a Frozen Rhine river and into Roman territory (11:58) in a single day. Bit by bit the Roman Empire was invaded before collapsing ushering in the post Roman dark ages.

llopango

This dark period was exacerbated further by the mega-eruption of llopango in El Salvador (13:02), which led to written records of extreme cold and darkness in the year 536 AD. Scientists believe the eruption ejected 84 cubic kilometers of ash into the atmosphere, destroying everything within a 1000 km radius and darkening the skies over Europe and even China. Ash from the llopango eruption is even seen in ice cores from Antarctica (15:55). The material reached into the stratosphere and caused an “18-month long climate anomaly of cold and darkness“. Millions of people of people died as a result.

As fear gripped the planet and nature regained the upper hand, the conditions became ideal for religions to thrive, warning of the wrath of God and offering the hope of salvation (20:00).

Rise of Central American civilizations

While war and fear plagued Europe, climate conditions were however ideal in Central America, and civilizations there blossomed (22:00). At the 22:30 mark we see the Nazca Lines (before they were ruined by Greenpeace). By 900 AD, natural climate change struck the Central American region again as prolonged droughts ground down the once mighty Latin American cultures (22:45). What was behind the sudden change? At the 23:20 mark the documentary again points at the sun.

Responsible was solar activity.”

Medieval Warm Period by the sun

But the documentary dances around about how solar activity impacts the earth, hinting at basic solar irradiance, and avoiding Svensmark’s theory.  At the 24:15 mark:

That also applies to the year 800 AD. The sun is at a maximum activity. It’s irradiance especially strong. The blue planet gradually begins to heat up.”

The warmth, the documentary says, “opened up the Arctic from North America to Europe” and allowed explorers to venture out and the Vikings to settle in “an almost ice-free” Iceland and in Greenland (25:30) 1050 years ago. Lief Ericson reached Newfoundland at about the year 1000 AD (26:30). In Europe the warming took hold with a vengeance. The documentary says at the 26:50 mark:

On average the temperature was 3°C warmer than the years before.”

Europe was transformed into a rich bread-basket (27:20). The weather was once again stable and planning was possible. At this point we get hints that the documentary is trying to tells us that normal weather in warm times is stable. Yet history tells us that storms also occurred during the warm Medieval Period.

Gunther Hischfelder tells that the warm period of the Medieval Period had consquences (29:25):

The creation of cities was a response to climate change and provided the spark for a take-off for human history, an explosion in culture and civilization, and is thus the reason it is the cornerstone for the creation of our modern world.”

All thanks to the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), which was as warm and even warmer than today. At the 29:50 mark we see that “three quarters of Germany’s cities were created during the Medieval Warm Period”. Growth exploded all over Europe. By the year 1250 AD, “Europe’s societies were as strong as never before” (31:35).

Strangely, and probably on purpose, the ZDF documentary focusses only on Europe for its look at the Medieval Warm Period, and presents no examples of it occurring at other locations on the globe – as it did for the earlier warm periods. Is the ZDF trying to have us believe that MWP was regionally isolated in Europe? Scientific proxy data tell us it was warm all over the globe.

Sun strangely disappears as a climate factor in the year 1250

At the 32:00 mark the documentary looks at the beginning of the end of the MWP: “In the second half of the thirteenth century it got markedly colder in Europe“. The reason was a number of erupting volcanoes at various locations around the globe, the documentary says (32:10) that it cooled the global climate for almost 500 years. So according to the ZDF, the sun stopped playing a role in climate change 800 years ago. Strange that all the other climate changes before that, the sun was always to blame.

No matter what the real reason for the post MWP cooling may have been, the ZDF tells us that it was warm during the Medieval Warm Period and that it then cooled substantially after 1300 AD. That de facto refutes the bogus claims of a steady climate made by Michael Mann.

Longest cold period since the last ice age

In fact, the ZDF documentary calls the Little Ice Age, which had a solid lock on Europe by the year 1500 AD, “the longest cold period since the last ice age” (33:15).  And there’s a huge magnitude of literature available from the times clearly documenting the extreme weather and hardship endured by Europe during this time. Here old records describe extreme storms and harsh weather, crop failures, starvation, pestilence and widespread death (36:00). In just 100 years, the population reduced by one third. Fear gripped the continent and sorcerers were blamed (36:50). (Sound familiar?) 60,000 people were burned at the stake for “cooperating with the Devil” in brewing bad weather. Today we have crazed lawyers wanting to put industries on trial for the same thing.

Clearly the ZDF documentary tells us that cold periods are disasters, and warm ones, like the one we are witnessing today, are hugely advantageous.

At the 37:30 mark the ZDF describes how glaciers advanced over North America, Scandinavia and the Alps, where entire villages were swallowed by the ice. Things got so bad that Europe plunged into war and mayhem (38:20), eventually culminating in the French Revolution (39:10). The final icing on the cake was delivered by the Indonesian volcano Tambora in 1815, which gave the world the year without a summer in 1816 (40:30).

Modern warming – sun nowhere near in sight

The Little ice Age ended around 1850 with what the ZDF suprisingly calls the “beginning of a period with moderate and stable temperatures. It characterizes the weather until today.” (41:30).

At the 42:00 minute mark the ZDF finally deviates from reason, claiming that for the first time in history, with industrialization, man has changed the climate of the earth. No more mention of the sun as a factor, which made its last appearance on the climate stage 800 years ago. Now it’s mankind’s fault. I was expecting the documentary to end in this silly way, and I was not wrong in doing so.

Mad Maslin

Mark Maslin at the end puts the icing on the cake, making a totally insane comment at the 42:30 mark where he proclaims that man actually now has the chance to take control of the climate – away from the sun, oceans and other forces of nature. Try not to burst out laughing:

We are now at the point where we can decide what the climate of the future will look like. When we as a world community, all nations working together, are able to really prevent global warming, that would be fantastic. That would be the first time that the climate doesn’t control us, but rather us would control it. We can make sure that all future generations will have a stable climate.”

Wow! Just pay them indulgences. Apart from Maslin’s and the ZDF’s sheer nonsense in the last two minutes, an excellent documentary on the climate since the last ice age.

 

International Team Of Scientists Refute Alarmist Desertification Projections…Sahel Precipitation Rising, Vegetation Spreading!

Bayreuth_1New paper by Brandt et al on increased precipitation has been greening the Sahara since 1980. Yet another IPCC model projection that is headed off in the wrong direction. Hat-tip DkS.
Press Release No. 121/2014 of the University of Bayreuth, Germany  dated 30 June 2014. My emphasis:
==============

New research works show: Not global climate change alone, but rather foremost the local actions of people impact the face of the environment

Are the earth’s deserts continuously expanding? Or is green vegetation now spreading into regions that were once barren deserts? The West African section of the Sahel zone located at the southernmost edge of the Sahara, which extends from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, has been the source of reason for a wide variety of prognoses over the recent years. Extreme periods of drought during the 1970s and 1980s were considered as indices of growing desert regions across the globe. “Desertification” was the buzzword. However, over the last two decades a rise in precipitation has been observed across the West African Sahel. As a result there has been talk about the blanket perception that “the desert is greening”.

With this controversy as the backdrop, an international research team led by geographer Martin Brandt of the University of Bayreuth examined the vegetation development in the West African Sahel more closely. High and coarse resolution satellite data as well as wide range of measurement results from the last decades enabled conclusions to be drawn on climate and vegetation trends and field research brought regional and local particularities to light. Here some determinations were made: There is no uniform development in the West African Sahel. Not only the climate but also especially various forms of land-use – farming, forestry management or village development – are mostly responsible for the way the landscape there appears, and which resources it offers the people.

In the journal “remote sensing”researchers from Bayreuth (Germany), France, Spain and the Senegal report on their results. “The activity of man on location, for example the sustainable cultivation of selected green plants or the reforestation of forests, can impact the face of the landscape considerably,” says Martin Brandt. “Such initiatives and measures by the local population are far less dependent on large-scale climatic trends than what was earlier assumed. For this reason environmental and climate research should not be one-sidedly guided by blanket buzzwords such as ‘desertification’ or ‘greening Sahel’.”

Regional differences due to land and forest management – case studies in Mali and in the Senegal

Thanks to  satellite time series analyses , the scientists were able to determine that the vegetation density in the West African Sahel increased from 1982 to 2010. This development is especially pronounced in the Senegal and in western Mali. Here there are clear regional differences with respect to plants that have multiplied over time: Not only does one observe the wild growth of trees, bushes and grass, but also foremost the expansion of crops and plants due to farm and forest management measures. In total one notices that in the West African countries, with the exception of Gambia and the Ivory Coast, the forest levels have decreased markedly even though the vegetation density has increased as a whole.

Bayreuth_2The field research work by Martin Brandt (left) concentrated on two regions: the Senegal and Mali: The region surrounding the city of Bandiagara in southern Mali has seen a complete transformation of its vegetation over the last 50 years: Many tree and bush types that were still common in the 1960s have disappeared. Periods of drought did not alone damage the plants through a lack of water, but also it was because income from agriculture fell due to poor harvests, and so the people tried to compensate by felling trees and selling lumber. However in the meantime, a vegetation-rich landscape has since appeared – and not only because the precipitation amounts have been increasing for two decades and extended periods of droughts have failed to occur. “A targeted reforestation and planting of trees on agricultural land have changed the landscape considerably,” reports Brandt, and adds: “Without a sound botanical and ecological knowledge by the local population, this development would not have been possible.”

The transformation to an agricultural landscape  was also found by the scientists from Bayreuth at another region – one located in the Senegal, north of the city of Linguère. This region is mainly settled by nomads belonging to the Fulbe ethnic group who practice intensive pasture farming. In order to feed their livestock with leaves during dry periods, they cut or fell trees and bushes during dry periods. Nevertheless, state-sponsored reforestation and protective measures have led to a considerable increase in vegetation over the last two decades and it has become more adaptable to climate fluctuations. Today three especially robust tree types make up more than 90% of the vegetation found in the region surrounding Linguère. “Alone in the immediate proximity of the city there is a fenced-in area of at least 5000 hectares on which a special species of acacia has been placed,” says Martin Brandt. However he also points to the unmistakable damage in some places arising from the overuse of the tree stock. This completely bare ground is very difficult to regenerate – an example of how intervention into the vegetation by man can be destructive when it is not approached with ecological farsightedness.

Intervention by man stimulates a differentiated agricultural landscape – Plea for research without blanket buzzwords

The newly published scientific results refute the claims that the West Sahel is being hit by a growing desert that is a consequence of a global climate change. However they also refute the suggestion that the “greening of the desert” will take off by itself due to the increasing annual precipitation. The moderate trend reversal after a severe period of drought indeed does entail an increase in vegetation density. But it neither means a return to the conditions that existed before these extreme climatic events, nor does it automatically mean a widespread growth of green vegetation. Moreover, anthropogenic factors – and conversely their absence – have had a decisive impact on landscape and vegetation. Targeted farm and forest management measures that are oriented on scientific knowledge can significantly foster a differentiated man-made landscape.

Martin Brandt, who will soon receive his doctorate at the University of Bayreuth, also here sees reason for hope: “Should the climate prognoses of the UN IPCC do come true, the living conditions in some arid and semi-arid regions of West Africa – foremost in the region of the Sahel zone – will worsen. Appropriate concepts for land and forest management and for environmental protection however do offer the opportunity to adapt quickly enough to such climate developments in order to soften the impacts on poeple..”

International support project

The research works in Mali and in the Senegal were part of an international project: “Climate Change, Environmental Changes and Migration: Social-Ecological Conditions of Population Movements with the Example of the Sahel Countries Mali and Senegal (micle)”. The “micle” research project was funded from 2010 to April 2014 by the German Ministry for Education and Science (BMBF) and coordinated by the Institute for Social Ecological Research (ISOE) in Frankfurt. The Geographical Institute of the University of Bayreuth – together with the Institute for Geography and Regional Research of the University of Vienna – was involved as an associated partner. The leadership of the sub-project “Physical Geographical Perspectives ” was done by Prof. Dr. Cyrus Samimi, who today leads the research group for climatology at the University of Bayreuth. Prof. Dr. Martin Doevenspeck , Professor Regional-Related Conflict Research at the University of Bayreuth, was responsible for the sub-project “Social-Geographic Perspectives”.

Publication:

Martin Brandt, Aleixandre Verger, Abdoul Aziz Diouf, Frederic Baret and Cyrus Samimi, Local Vegetation Trends in the Sahel of Mali and Senegal Using Long Time Series FAPAR Satellite Products and Field Measurement (1982–2010), in: Remote Sensing 2014, 6, pp. 2408-2434 DOI:10.3390/rs6032408.

Photos: U of Bayreuth

 

Leading German Private Commercial Meteorologist: “No Statistical Basis” Showing Winters Are Getting Warmer

Jung_TwitterPrivate commercial meteorologist are always under pressure to produce reasonably accurate forecasts for their clients and to stick to the best available science. If their models and work consistently produce false results, then it is not long before they find themselves looking for a new line of work. There’s no room for politics in their trade.

Photo: meteorologist Dominik Jung, Twitter

No trend to anything unusual

One of Germany’s leading private commercial meteorologists, Dominik Jung of wetternet.de, gives an interview at the online Hessische/Niedersächsische Allgemeine Zeitung (HNA). Jung says storms and variable weather are nothing new in Germany, and that there is no trend pointing to any unusual changes.

So far this summer Germany has seen a fair amount of variable weather, with several periods of a few hot days followed by cooler rainy days. HNA asked Jung if this was unusual and if spells of sunny, hot summerlike weather had not been longer in the past. The HNA gives us Jung’s answer: “No. Weeks-long warm periods with long-lasting heat are not typical for our region.”

Summers getting wetter, contradicting climate models

On whether German summers are becoming drier, as many climate scientists once projected: “In the past years six were wetter than the long-term average. The summer of 2013 was a bit too dry.”

Winters are not getting warmer

The HNA also brings up the often mentioned claim that German winters are becoming warmer, and that snow and frost will soon become “a thing of the past”. It writes: Also the suspicion that winters are getting warmer cannot be statistically asserted. Over the past seven years many of the winters were very cold with long periods of snow and ice.”

Increased storm activity in Germany?

The HNA also asked Jung about storm frequency and severity. Here as well the high-profile meteorologist sees no statistical basis. The HNA writes : “According to Jung, there is no detectable increase. The UN IPCC report also comes up with the same result. … statistically there hasn’t been any more such storms than there was 100 years ago.”

On rising insurance claims due to storm damage, Jung says that the rising trend has much more to do with the higher number of people insuring their assets, and is not a measure of storm activity.

Jung also says that spring on average is arriving about one or two weeks earlier than it did 3o years ago. Here Jung does not mention that 30 years ago some importanct ocean cycles were in their cold phases. Climate is changing, but that change is due in most part to natural cycles, which even alarmist scientists have been conceding lately every time they claim “the warming is being masked by natural variations.”

Climate change is natural

When asked if the fluctuiations are a tell-tale sign of climate change, Jung dumps cold water on that claim as well. The HNA reports: “For meteorologist Jung there is currently no acute effects of a climate change. Climate has been changing since the earth was created, and it will continue to do so in the decades and centuries ahead.”

 

Munich Re Report: Top 2014 Weather Catastrophe Losses Due To Cold-Related Events, “Record Harsh Winter”!

We keep hearing from alarmists that storms are becoming more violent and more frequent, and thus storm damage and deaths are rising – all because of man-made global WARMING. Unless we stop driving SUV’s, mankind in the future will be wiped out by global warming-precipitated bad weather. Hat-tip: DirkH.

However, the world’s largest re-insurer (and a very active proponent of global warming catastrophe), Munich Re, has just released its latest “catastrophe report“, which looks at the first half of 2014. In it there are some interesting admissions.

Economic losses plummet 56%

“The statistics for natural catastrophes for the first half of 2014 have been marked by pleasingly low levels of global claims. Overall economic losses of US$ 42bn and insured losses of US$ 17bn to the end of June were considerably below the average for the past ten years (US$ 95bn and US$ 25bn respectively).

That translates to an almost 56% drop in economic losses from natural catastrophes (not necessarily weather-related, e.g. earthquakes, volcanoes).

Deaths down eye-popping 95%!

“Thankfully, the number of deaths caused by natural catastrophes was also comparatively low. During the first half of the year, 2700 people died as a result of natural catastrophes, which was much lower than is normal during the first six months of a year (10-year average: 53,000). There were around 490 loss-relevant natural catastrophes.”

Only 2700 people died, normal is 53,000! That’s a drop of 95%. Despite the good news, the Munich Re insists there’s been “no change in the overall risk situation“, and so premiums unfortunately will have to stay high because global warming catastrophes are lurking.

“Snowstorms”, harsh “record winter” cause biggest losses!

Ironically the most damage was not caused by something we typically associate with global warming, but rather with global cooling!

“The effect of loss susceptibility on claims was clearly demonstrated by two snowstorms in Japan. These storms in February, which hit Tokyo and central Japan in particular, brought overall losses of around US$ 5bn and insured losses of more than US$ 2.5bn, and were the most costly natural catastrophe worldwide in the first half of the year. Snowfalls of up to a metre are very unusual in the affected provinces in Japan, though they would cause very few problems in other countries. There were numerous accidents, and the roofs of many halls and greenhouses collapsed under the weight of the snow.

Record North American winter, blizzards cause losses

“The record winter in North America also caused significant losses, with extremely cold temperatures and heavy snowfalls over a longer period in many parts of the USA and Canada. The losses from various blizzards totalled around US$ 3.4bn. The most costly snowstorm was in the first week of January: losses for this storm alone totalled US$ 2.5bn, of which US$ 1.7bn was insured. In many instances the harsh winter also had a heavy impact on business, as companies were forced to stop production. At the end of January, a blizzard brought the Atlanta metropolitan area almost to a standstill, even though only a few centimetres of snow had fallen. Snow and ice made the highways impassable, as there was a lack of snow-clearing equipment for a city unused to such conditions.”

Munich Re contorts to blame it on “climate change”

Of course for a company whose business plan is based on promoting global warming catastrophe, the unexpected harsh winter losses may lead to clients asking questions. The Munich Re then undergoes contortions to link the cold to global warming:

“According to Peter Höppe, Head of Munich Re’s Geo Risks Research Department, there is a link between the weather extremes in the northern hemisphere this winter. “These extremes – with heavy winter conditions in North America and Asia, and the extraordinarily mild winter across large parts of Europe – were due to significant and lengthy meanders in the jet stream”, said Höppe. “And scientists are still having intense debates about whether such sustained changes to patterns in the jet stream – and therefore also the frequency of such extreme and persistent weather conditions – might increase in the future due to climate change.”

When one scrutinizes the Munich report, little damage arises from warm events. The warm weather cited is restricted to Europe, which represents a tiny fraction of the world’s surface.

USA tornadoes down 25%

“The tornado season in the USA, which peaks from May to July, has been below average so far. The US weather agency NOAA recorded 721 tornadoes until end of June, in comparison to an average of 1,026 in the years 2005–2013.”

But hey! “Videos filmed on 17 June showed an extremely rare twin tornado in the State of Nebraska.” Wow! Aint that something! Must be global warming.

Munich Re sees no “super El Niño” this fall

Over the rest of the year, weather events will probably see increasing impact from ENSO, a naturally occurring phenomenon that involves fluctuating ocean temperatures in the equatorial Pacific. “With the contrary effects of El Niño and La Niña, ENSO can influence weather patterns in many parts of the world”, said Höppe. “It currently looks as though a moderate El Niño will develop by the autumn, with warm water from the South Pacific moving from west to east, thus shifting wind systems and precipitation across the Pacific basin.”

La Niña prognosis for next year…hurricanes!

“Hurricane activity in the northern Atlantic normally decreases during El Niño phases. The number of typhoons in the northwest Pacific usually increases, but they make landfall more rarely. Tornado activity increases in the USA. “This gives a different distribution of losses across regions. Globally, our loss database NatCatSERVICE records no significant differences in overall losses in moderate El Niño years when compared to neutral years, whereas losses are significantly lower in years with a strong El Niño”, said Höppe. The stronger the El Niño, the more likely it is that there will be a La Niña in the following year, when hurricane activity tends to increase.”

 

USA’s Monster “Climate-Catastrophe”…Of 1936 (When CO2 Was At “Safe” Level of 310 PPM)!

Swindlers are out there trying to sell us that bad weather is something new and happening because atmospheric CO2 concentration are “too high”. If only we paid carbon taxes and gave them more regulatory power, then we could prevent bad weather from happening and return to a Garden of Eden.

To some us all this sounds silly, of course. But many dimwitted people actually believe it.

Steve Goddard at Twitter brought my attention to the following newspaper clipping (I’ve cut and pasted piecemeal below) from the Perth Australia Daily News, dated 1936. As you will read, the scale of the disaster and the extremes are beyond anything we have ever witnessed today.

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1936_1

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1936_41936_51936_61936_71936_8

Weather like we had back when CO2 was only 310 ppm? No thanks!

Source: http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/page/8424077?zoomLevel=1

Also read Europe’s disaster of 1540 here.

 

Spiegel: Europe’s “Gigantic Catastrophe” Happened in 1540 (When CO2 Was 30% Less Than Today!)

Spiegel science journalist Axel Bojanowski, a geologist, writes about Europe’s largest natural catastrophe, which occurred in 1540.

No, it wasn’t a mega-volcanic eruption, a super earthquake, or a monster meteor hit. It was a severe “unprecedented” drought that fried and scorched the continent to an extent that dwarfs anything we have experienced over the past 100 years, scientists have uncovered. In the introduction Bojanowski writes:

Hardly any rain and extreme heat eleven months long. More than 300 chronicles reveal the gruesome details of a gigantic catastrophe in the year 1540. And they show: The disaster can happen again.”

I hope Spiegel publishes this article in English later on because it succinctly reminds us that there is a lot more to climate and extreme weather than a trace gas and that weather and climate have always been brutal. Voodoo science, rain-dancing and bicycle riding aren’t going to tame the weather.

Bojanowski writes that there was no warning that a catastrophe was about to grip the continent. Europe had enjoyed a spell of rainy mild weather accompanied by bumper harvests. Culture and society flourished. In December 1539 heavy rains led to flooding and people had to flee their homes. “They had no idea how precious the rain would soon be.”

In his article Bojanowski describes how suddenly in January 1540 a drought ensued and would last 11 months. Scientists say it was “far worse” than the European heat wave of 2003 according to a new paper authored by Oliver Wetter et al appearing in the journal Climate Change. The study’s abstract reminds us that extreme extremes are all too familiar in the past when CO2 were at a critically low level of 270 ppm (my emphasis).

The heat waves of 2003 in Western Europe and 2010 in Russia, commonly labelled as rare climatic anomalies outside of previous experience, are often taken as harbingers of more frequent extremes in the global warming-influenced future. However, a recent reconstruction of spring–summer temperatures for WE resulted in the likelihood of significantly higher temperatures in 1540. In order to check the plausibility of this result we investigated the severity of the 1540 drought by putting forward the argument of the known soil desiccation-temperature feedback. Based on more than 300 first-hand documentary weather report sources originating from an area of 2 to 3 million km2, we show that Europe was affected by an unprecedented 11-month-long Megadrought. The estimated number of precipitation days and precipitation amount for Central and Western Europe in 1540 is significantly lower than the 100-year minima of the instrumental measurement period for spring, summer and autumn. This result is supported by independent documentary evidence about extremely low river flows and Europe-wide wild-, forest- and settlement fires. We found that an event of this severity cannot be simulated by state-of-the-art climate models.

Spiegel writes that according to one wine grower, “It rained only 3 days in March.” Bojanowski writes that as the year progressed, the soil dried out and the air above it became oven hot as the summer sun relentlessly scorched the continent day after day. The result? Bojanowski describes a scene of multiple days over 30°C, rivers drying out, animals dying of dehydration, large-scale crop failures, forest infernos, and people collapsing like flies from heat stroke. The social fabric came apart at the seams: “Tensions erupted into persecution and executions. people barricaded themselves in homes in fear of the violence.”

The Spiegel journalist also writes that the mega-drought of 1540 shows that the hypothesis drawn up by climate scienists claiming the 2003 heat wave was exascerbated by man-made global warming is overly simplistic. He quotes Rüdiger Glaser of the University of Freiburg:

Indeed it just isn’t that simple: The fact that 1540 saw an even worse heat wave without the artificially enhanced greenhouse effect relativizes the assessment of a man-made impact on the weather of 2003.”

Near the end of the article Bojanowski writes that experts say that the same catastrophe could happen again today and that Europe is ill-prepared. Moreover, it is doubtful that droughts of such magnitude can be predicted early nowadays and the reasons for the 1540 extreme event are subject to pure speculation only.

See Spiegel photo gallery of Germany’s 2003 summer scorcher.

So, should it surprise us that the extreme heat of 1540 precluded the Little Ice Age? What evidence of solar activity do we have for the year 1540? There are lots of factors that need to be pieced together in the hopes of finding out what may have caused the catastrophic 1540 heat wave. One factor can be excluded: trace gas CO2.

 

WeatherBell “Saturday Summary” Debunks 6 Climate Alarmism Falsehoods In Less Than 10 Minutes!

If you don’t have the truth, then some folks rely on lies and hope others will be fooled and stay so. Such is the case with global warming climate science. Almost every measure of global warming has stopped cooperating with the alarmists over the last 10 years. Now they have to make things up.

At Weatherbell Analytics Joe Bastardi has another outstanding Saturday Summary, which every week I look forward to like I looked forward to the Saturday morning cartoons when I was 8 years old.

This week I was fascinated by the number of falsehoods coming from the global warming industry that Joe debunked, and how he did it so quickly. The veteran meteorologist exposes all of them for what they are – in less than 10 minutes!

The string of debunking begins at about the 4-minute mark with the so-called claimed “record drought” that is supposedly gripping Texas and America’s heartland. Joe calls that claim “a lie”. With charts he clearly shows that the recent drought was not even close to being the worst, and that the drought of the 1950s was considerably more intense.

Weatherbell_2014_06_21Secondly at the 7:55 mark, he debunks the claims of the upcoming “super El Niño” that the “Church of Super El Niño”, who want to see high temperatures, were ballyhooing earlier this year.

Chart right: Weatherbell

Again Joe presents charts that show the current development resembles nothing you’d expect from a super El Niño and that the current situation looks more similar to 2002/03 or 2009/10. All models have long since downgraded their forecasts. The missing heat remains missing.

Thirdly at the 10:00 mark Joe shows how the leading weather services are diametrically opposed when it comes to their forecasts using the Madden Julian Oscillation. While the European model shows the MJO will be in Phase 6, meaning US temps will be cool in July, the US models show that it will be in Phase 1, which means it will be warm over the US in July.

Fourthly, at the 10:55 mark, Joe shows that although tornado activity in the US has risen over the last weeks, the overall activity is still well below normal. How is that “extreme”?

Fifthly at the 11:15 mark, Joe tells the real story about wildfires, whose seemingly increased intensity is claimed to be yet another ominous of climate disaster. Here too we see that wildfire activity is being wildly exaggerated and is well below normal. Currently this year there have been 24,124 wild fires, normal is 31,758. As far as acreage is concerned, things are even less worse look worse for the warmist extremers. Normal acres burned is 1,777,552 acres. So far it is only 826,471 acres. Joe emphasizes, “We’re way the heck below the average.”

Weatherbell_2014_06_21_2Finally at the 12:00 mark, Joe debunks falsehood Number 6 by presenting global sea ice for 2014 so far, and here we see that it is not even close to the ice-free conditions some were predicting some years ago.

Chart right: Weatherbell

In the Arctic sea ice is now headed toward normal levels. Around Antarctic sea ice remains stubbornly close to record levels.

Joe adds, “It may break the all-time record, let alone the daily record“.

 

Climate Profoundly Impacted Development Of Civilization…Cool Periods Brought On Plagues/Death

A Short History of the Human Race
Part 4/4. The Iron Age to the Present
Research by Ed Caryl

Climate historians usually recognize one Holocene Climate Optimum, from the end of the last ice age to about 4000 years ago. But as we have seen in this series of articles, there were three major warm periods, the first in the Upper Neolithic from 11,000 years BP to the 8.2 KY event, another from 8.2 KY to the 5.9 KY event, then the Bronze Age from 5.9 KY to 3.2 KY before present.

Each warm period resulted in a rise in sea level, the first melting most of the remaining ice from the ice age, the second finishing off the last ice in Canada and northern Europe. Each of these warm periods gave rise to a surge in population and technology. Each warm period advanced civilization. In the Bronze Age, empires arose in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Anatolia. At 3200 years ago, all this came to an end.

At 3200 years BP, cold dropped sea levels by over 2 meters. Populations went on the move in response to crop failures. The Egyptian, Hittite, and Mycenaean Greek empires collapsed. Piracy (the Sea People) reigned supreme in the Mediterranean. No one knows for sure who the Sea People were because their incursions did not result in their establishing another empire, they simply looted and destroyed most of the cities around the Mediterranean. This was the Greek Age of Heroes. The time Homer attempted to record in the Iliad and the Odyssey. The history of this period survives as myth. This was also the time of Moses as recorded in the first four books of the Bible.

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Figure 1 (from upper to lower trace) is sea level, Greenland ice core, and Antarctic ice core temperatures, with the orange Alpine Recession time line at bottom. Some notable events are indicated on the Greenland temperature trace.

Trade was interrupted during this period, so tin imports for bronze were cut off. Bronze continued to be recycled, but the shortage encouraged the use of iron. This was the beginning of the Iron Age. The Iron Age should probably be called the steel age because pure iron is nearly as soft as bronze. Early blacksmiths learned quickly that working carbon into the iron made it much harder. Doing so results in steel, but making steel requires high temperatures making it more costly, so steel edges were welded to iron axes to produce an edge that would remain sharp with use while the whole tool remained less expensive. This is sometimes still done today.

Cool periods brought on plagues and death

The Greek Dark Age lasted for 300  years. Other areas recovered a bit more quickly, but Greece even lost their written language during this interval, only recovering it in the Greek Archaic Period. The Archaic Period began during a warm period seen in a 200-year period of Alpine Recession, sea level stabilization, and southern hemisphere warming. In this period, architecture, art and literature of all kinds flourished. Population increased. Greek colonies were established all around the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. All this came to a halt in another cool period.

In 430 BCE, the Plague of Athens struck. It has not been determined what pathogen caused this plague. Typhus, typhoid, the Ebola virus, Marburg, Small Pox, and Measles have all been suggested as possibilities. It killed a third to two-thirds of the population of Athens, including their general at the time, Pericles. It weakened the Greeks to the extent that the Macedonians, and then the Romans, dominated Greece until the middle ages. Population and trade growth at this time exacerbated the spread of disease across the then known world. If the Plague of Athens was caused by the Ebola or Marburg virus, import of animals from Africa, as well as overcrowding and poor sanitation, was the likely cause.

Temperatures and sea levels were rising after this time. Alexander the Great conquered most of the Middle East, but after he died, his generals couldn’t hold that territory. Rome began to flourish, and by 100 Common Era (CE), had conquered most of Europe and a large part of the Middle East. The glaciers in the Alps were in recession for 300 years, 150 years before, and 150 years after, the birth of Christ. Edpart4_2

Figure 2 is a map of the Roman Empire in the time of Emperor Trajan. (Wikipedia Commons)

A period of cooling then began in about the year 150 ACE. The Hatepe/Taupo Lake VEI 7 eruption took place in 186 CE. The dust and sulfates may have precipitated more cooling, and the effects were seen in Rome and China. Sea levels began to fall. Crops in northern Europe began to fail. Disease began to take a toll.

The Antonine Plague struck Rome in 165 CE, lasting for 15 years. It killed up to one million people and devastated the Roman army. A few years later, the Plague of Cyprian in 250 to 270 CE repeated this devastation. These plagues carried off several Roman Emperors and caused manpower shortages in agriculture and the Roman army. During this period, germanic tribes began moving south across Europe, putting pressure on Rome at a time when Rome could least resist.

As the temperature dropped from the high of the Roman Warm Period, conflict and migrations stirred Europe and the middle East. Plagues and warfare continued to impact populations. For example, the population of Rome went from one or two million at its hight in the 2nd Century to as low as 100,000 in the 6th Century. The Plague of Justinian struck the eastern Mediterranean in 541 CE. Over the next few years it killed perhaps 25% of the population. As many as 25 million people died over the next three centuries. More migrations took place. This population summary is taken from Wikipedia here. The population levels of Europe during the Middle Ages can be roughly categorized:[1]

•       280–400 (Late Antiquity): population decline.
•       400–1000 (Early Middle Ages): stable at a low level.
•       1000–1250 (High Middle Ages): population boom and expansion.
•       1250–1350 (Late Middle Ages): stable at a high level.
•       1350–1420 (Late Middle Ages): steep decline
•       1420–1470 (Late Middle Ages): stable at a low level.
•       1470–onward: slow expansion gaining momentum in the early 16th century.

Notice how this description follows the global temperature as seen in the sea level curve in Figure 1. During the Medieval Warm Period, 950 to 1250 CE, and the resulting population boom and expansion, the construction of large cathedrals began all across Europe. The Vikings expanded across the Atlantic to Iceland and Greenland, even briefly establishing a colony in Newfoundland. All this came to and end, again because of climate. Mt Rinjani in Indonesia, erupted in a VEI 7 event in 1257 CE. This event may have precipitated the Little Ice Age. There was a famine across Europe in 1315, caused by bad weather triggered by another volcano, Mount Tarawera in New Zealand. The Black Death struck in 1346, beginning in the Crimea. It is estimated that 30 to 60% of the European population died. The Spörer Solar Minimum from 1460 to 1550 contributed to low temperatures. Edpart4_3

Figure 3

The low-stand in global temperature in the Little Ice Age is reflected in the CO2 level as seen in the Antarctic Law Dome ice core data, Figure 3. This is because of lower sea surface temperatures. Low temperatures span the Maunder Minimum and end at the Dalton Minimum of the early 19th Century.

If the solar minimums of the 15th and 17th centuries contributed to the Little Ice Age, then the Modern Maximum must contribute to our current higher temperatures. As one can clearly see, high temperatures drive increasing populations, increasing crops, increasing innovation and technology.

Low temperatures drive famine, disease, social unrest, and declining populations. In the last 10,000 years, There were many times when the temperatures were higher than today. These were times when mankind expanded in many ways. We have had times of cold in the recent and far past. These were times when humanity declined.

We need not fear warmer temperatures. We do need to prepare for cooler temperatures, whether those arrive next winter, decade, century, or millennium.

 

German DWD Weather Service: “You Cannot Craft A Climate Statistic From One Singular Extreme Weather Situation”

The intense but short heat wave that struck parts of Central Europe earlier this month created quite a bit of hysteria among some German activist climatologists and most of the media.

For example IPCC climatologist Mojib Latif attributed the heat and severe thunderstorms to global warming. Stefan Rahmstorf tried to hint this may be the case, but had to concede there was no real data to back it up.

DWD dismisses connection to climate warming

Now the DWD German Weather Service has made it’s opinion public on the matter. At his climate blog at online flagship daily Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, journalist Joachim Müller-Jung writes, “It does not suffice to attribute the heat records to climate change” and he quotes the official DWD spokesman Gerhard Lux:

It may suit our imaginative world of the consequences of climate warming, but we are sticking to the principle that you cannot craft a climate statistic from one singular extreme weather situation.”

We’ll remember that when the next storm or hurricane hits. Good to see that Germany’s national weather service, the DWD, is keeping its sanity and dismisses the link between singular extreme weather events and climate change.

Heat records show no climate trend

Müller-Jung then adds:

The hot ‘African air’ produced record temperatures exclusively in southern Germany, already in Hessen or North Rhine Westphalia [Central Germany] there was not a single heat record. From heat records, which happen every few years and thus are too seldom as a whole, it still is not possible to discern a climate trend.”

In northwest Germany where I live, the temperature did not even reach the 30°C mark. So the intense heat was not only short, but it was rather local/regional as well.

Lux does note, however, that the frequency of heavy rainfall events (more than 30 mm) has risen. (That may have more to do with decadal cycles).

When asked why journalists have the feeling storms are more frequent, Lux says it is because people are far better networked today and every storm gets instantly communicated everywhere.

In earlier times no one gave a rat’s ass about a storm way out in East Hicksville, except the Hicksvillers. By the time the dramatic Hicksville pictures reached the audience in other places, it was already old news. That’s not the case today.

 

Holocene Cold Spells Brought Drought And Famine…Sea Levels Were Often Much Higher Than Today

A Short History of the Human Race
The Climb Out Of The Ice Age
Part 2
By Ed Caryl

Below is a plot of sea level and temperature for the last 21,000 years, when the world warmed out of the last ice age, and civilization became possible. This is the end of the Upper Pleistocene and the dawn of the Holocene. Note, that at the end of the last ice age it took 12,000 years for all the ice to melt. It was a long slog out of the caves. That first warm period, from 10,200 Before Present (BP) to 8200 BP was warmer than it is today, even though a third of the ice was still melting. The last major ice melted about 6500 years ago.

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Figure 1 is a plot of the last 21,000 years. The heavy purple and green traces are sea level with the scale on the right. The thin rust and blue traces are temperature from a greenland ice core and the Antarctic Dome C ice core respectively with the scale on the left. Three other time lines are: thick blue, the time of the last North African Pluvial period, when the Sahara was a grassland; dark orange, the time of the Persian Gulf flooding; and the light orange timeline, interrupted several times, were times of Alpine glacier recession. The short 8.2 kilo year cold period is marked in light blue. Various sea level high stands just above the green sea level trace are labeled in the legend. The grey time-line is the time of the Clovis Amerindian culture. The pink timeline is the time of the Folsom Amerindian culture.

I call your attention to several things in Figure 1. From right to left, old to more recent: The end of the ice age began about 20,000 years ago, when the northern hemisphere suddenly warmed by 5°C as seen at the source of the Greenland ice, the North Atlantic. The Southern Ocean, as seen at Dome C, did not warm for another 2000 years. But, the Bølling Interstadial warming took place simultaneously, globally, 14,500 years ago. During that short warming interval, the ancestors of the American Indians made their way across the Beringian plain, down either the west coast of what is now Canada, or down through an ice-free corridor through Alaska and central Canada, thence down across the length of the Americas to as far south as Terra Del Fuego in just a couple of thousand years.

In North America, by 13,500 years BP, the Amerindian Clovis culture was living off the megafauna, the large mammals present in this era, using beautifully worked large stone spear-points. 1500 years later, after the megafauna were killed off, either by the Clovis people or the cold Younger Dryas period, they morphed into the Folsom Culture, using smaller stone spear-points more suited to the smaller remaining animals.

In North Africa, and southwest Asia, beginning 15,000 years ago, because earth’s axis tilt began to favor the northern hemisphere during summer, the deserts were favored with additional summer monsoon rainfall. This allowed more human migration from north Africa into the Levant. At this time the Persian Gulf was a low valley watered by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and several others, some now dry wadis, combining into the Ur Schott river, and before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), at least two large lakes. Fresh water springs, now 4 or 5 fathoms under the gulf off Bahrain, supplied additional water.

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Figure 2 is a history of the Persian Gulf over the period from 74,000 years before present to 6,000 years ago. Source here.

There must have been people living in this valley, though because it is now flooded with 40 to 60 meters of water, the archeology necessary to prove it will be very difficult. But we do know that those occupation sites shown in the Stage IV panel above appeared very suddenly 8500 years ago on the Arabian shore and the people in those sites came from somewhere close by as they share a common and unique culture, the Ubaid culture. This valley may have been the source of the Eden stories. The sea level at the time of the Ubaid culture didn’t stop rising when it reached the level it has now. It rose an additional 5 meters in this area, flooding what is now southern Iraq for a hundred miles inland. Ur was established as a port, on the shore of this inland sea. There is evidence of reed-hulled sail boats in this time period, including bitumen fragments of the coating used to protect the reed structure, ceramic toy models, and an image on pottery showing a bipod masted craft. The ruins of Ur are now in the desert northwest of Basra, Iraq, far from the sea.

In this same period, Doggerland in what is now the North Sea, was also being flooded. The last bit of land there, what is now Dogger Bank, was an ever-shrinking island for several thousand years. Human produced artifacts have been dredged up by fishermen for many years. The last bit of land there went under about 6500 years ago.

Florida was also much larger before the sea level rose. Any coastal activity by Clovis culture people along the coast of the Americas is now under water. This is also true of many areas along in the Red Sea, the coast of India, and southeast Asia. A large area in what is now the South China Sea, the Sunda Strait, was also dry land and almost certainly settled.

The warm period from 11,500 to 8200 years ago was a time of many important advances for the human race. In this period, most of the important animals and agricultural crops we know today were domesticated in the Persian Gulf and Fertile Crescent region. Before this time people were nomadic, moving from one food source to another in the course of each year, building shelter as needed or living in caves. After this time many people lived in villages in permanent dwellings. By 8000 years BP, corn (maize) was domesticated in central Mexico.

As an example, Jericho is the oldest permanently occupied town, with the oldest level dating from 11,400 years BP. Before this time, the site had been used only as a temporary camp, as there is a large permanent spring nearby. The oldest level even had a 2 meter wall all around it with a watchtower that is still standing as it was buried in the tell. The dwellings were round pit houses, half sunken into the ground, with stone walls and a “wattle and daub” or adobe roof. World-wide, this type of house appears as the first permanent type dwelling in many cultures. It is still found in Northern Syria. At a similar village 5 miles north of Jericho, seedless domesticated figs have been found dating from this era. These would have had to have been propagated by cuttings, as the seeds never developed beyond the embryonic stage. Grains found at early Jericho were still of the wild variety, though they were gathered in quantity and stored for later use.

At Ur and H3 (above map, Figure 2, stage IV), domesticated grains were found, and 8200 years ago, evidence of irrigation, as well as domestic cattle, sheep, and goats. At this time, the domestic cat is found, though who domesticated who has not been established. Cats seem to have wandered in from the desert, found a source of food (domestic mice and domestic house swallows feeding on the stored domestic grain) and shelter, and decided to stay on. Some authors say this is “self-domestication.” I suspect cats domesticated us.

The first Holocene cold snap occurred 8200 years ago. Global temperature dropped about 2 degrees as seen at both poles. This lasted for about 200 years and was accompanied by drought and famine. This forced an increasing reliance on domesticated crops and animals, triggered the use of irrigation in Mesopotamia, and the domestication of corn (maize) in Central America. In North America, this split up the Folsom Culture people and drove the beginning of tribalism in the Paleo-Amerindians. This cold and arid spell was overcome by the technology, and the animal and plant domestication, that had developed in the earlier warm period.

Advances were made possible by the warm period that began more than 3000 years before all the ice melted. Sea levels were rising to be much higher than today and the human race was thriving on all continents except Antarctica. Warm is good. Cold is bad.

Next: The later Holocene and the rise of empires.

 

History Is Clear: Humans Prospered In Climates That Were Warmer Than Today’s…Died In Cooler Ones

A Short History of the Human Race
Part 1, The Late Pleistocene, A Story of Survival
By Ed Caryl

The story of the human race, Homo Sapiens, is really a story driven by climate, particularly temperatures, rainfall, and sea level. Most of that history has taken place in the last 20,000 years, since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). But there was also some pre-history. Before we could advance to civilization, we needed to survive the the last glacial period. This was not easily done. 100,000 years ago, there were several species of Homo. By 10,000 years ago there was just us, and that was just by the skin of our teeth. There is genetic evidence that in the period around 70,000 years ago, there may have been as few as 10,000 Homo Sapiens in the world.

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Figure 1 is a plot of Deuterium in a Greenland ice core, GISP2, a proxy for temperature.

Several points are indicated in figure 1. Reading from oldest at the right to the present day at the left, the Toba super-volcano in Indonesia caused an abrupt severe cooling that dropped the global temperature by about four degrees in a very short time. Prior to that, the climate had already cycled by similar amounts several times, but this cooling was much more severe. At that time, our ancestors were mostly confined to tropical Africa, but the cooling was accompanied by severe drying, putting pressure on the savannas in Africa that were our preferred habitat. Fortunately for us, after about a thousand years of starving out, the temperature and rainfall swung the other way, the Sahara Desert became green for a time, and we were able to migrate out of Africa through the Middle East, filling the vacuum left by Homo Erectus and putting pressure on the Neanderthals. Before the Eemian interglacial, Homo Erectus had gone extinct in Asia, except for locally adapted populations like Homo floresiensis in Indonesia and the Denisovans in central Asia. The last non-Modern Human population to die out was the Red Deer Cave people in China. They disappeared about the time Jericho was first settled in the Jordan Valley, 11,500 years ago.

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Figure 2 is a detail from figure 1 of the period from 60,000 to 75,000 years ago.

This period is a perfect example of what happens in a cold period (we die) versus what happens in a warm period (we thrive). In a span of 4000 years, mankind went from a severe population bottle-neck, to spreading across three continents.

15,000 years later, about 50,000 years ago, another warm spell triggered a further migration to what is now New Guinea and Australia. All through this period, and for much of the last glaciated phase, sea levels were much lower than today, as much as 120 meters lower, joining islands and continents with dry land. Except for the migration to Australia, this meant that ships and rafts were not necessary for these migrations. Walking sufficed.

About 40,000 years ago, another super volcano erupted, Archiflegreo on the Italian coast. This triggered another 1000-year cold spell, putting more pressure on our neighbors in Europe and Western Asia, Homo Neanderthalensis. After many cycles of warm and cold, even though they were cold-adapted, their population finally collapsed 30,000 years ago.

15,000 years ago, the last great migration, that of the ancestors of the Amerindians to the New World, took place during a period nearly as warm as at present, but before the great ice sheets had melted sufficiently for Beringia to be flooded. Beringia is the continental shelf in the Bering Sea joining Asia and North America, now under 50 to 100 meters of cold sea water.

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Figure 3 is a map of Beringia 21,000 years ago. Source here.

The great migrations, out of Africa, the crossing into New Guinea/Australia, the migration into the New World, were all made possible by warm, wet, periods during an ice age. When it is cold and arid, we huddle in our caves, starve and freeze. When it is warm, we multiply, innovate, and go on the move. When possible, we move to warmer and more hospitable climes, or at least empty areas. From Beringia, we populated North America and expanded to South America in about a thousand years. Just like today, when we move to Arizona or Florida, southern France or Spain.

 

Scientists Stunned…Globe’s Semi-Arid Zones Underestimated, Turning Greener With More Vegetation!

Settled science becomes unsettled again.

The online Swiss Berner Zeitung here has an article reporting on how scientists have underestimated the role on climate that the globe’s semi-arid regions are playing. According to the report, climate change has lead to the Nullarbor Plain of southern Australia to be the greenest it has ever been in 30 years.

Nullarbor_Plain_Rainbow

CO2 is greening up the Nullarbor Plain of southern Australia. Photo credit:  Yewenyi. the GNU Free Documentation License.

Not only is the greening up surprising the scientists, all the new vegetation is also absorbing huge quantities of CO2 from the air…something the models forgot to account for. The article in the Berner Zeitung cites a study recently appearing in journal Nature.

Scientists have noticed that the man-made share of atmospheric CO2 has remained constant recently despite increasing emissions. As a reaction to man-made CO2, the planet has been greening up. The Berner Zeitung writes: “Possible reason: The higher CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and an additional take-up in atmospheric nitrogen have boosted plant growth.”

The Berner Zeitung describes how scientists once initially believed tropical rainforests would do most of the CO2 absorption, and are now surprised to see that semi-arid lands are are “playing a more important role”, one the never anticipated.

Time to go back and fix the models again.

Berner Zeitung writes:

2011 was extreme: 51 percent of the global CO2 intake on land was by vegetation on semi-arid deserts in three regions in the southern hemisphere. […]

…Since 1981 vegetation coverage in Australia has grown by 6%.”

Other recent studies based on satellite imagery and on-site observations show that the same is true in the African Sahara, which is adding thousands of square kilometers of vegetation every year.

At the end of the report the Berner Zeitung frets that the greening of semi-arid regions may in the end just be harboring a danger because such semi-arid areas are highly prone to bush fires and so the CO2 will wind up back in the air. The Berner Zeitung concludes:

The scientists believe that this hazard will probably increase in the future.”

Just goes to show: No matter what the planets does, pessimism and gloom always win in climate science and media!

 

Bad Weather Reports: ‘Deutsche Wetterdienst’ Exaggerates Precipitation Trend 7-Fold To Produce Alarm

Producing alarmist scenarios and visions of climate horror are in vogue today at various weather and climate institutions. For example a recent study has just come out warning that Western Antarctic Ice Sheet is on the verge of a “chain reaction to collapse” – due to warming of course. (Never mind Antarctic sea ice is at a record high for the date). Things are no different at Germany’s national weather service; Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD), who seem to have problems telling the truth.

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Surprise! Original data refuses to back up DWD’s claims of wetter winters in Germany

By Sebastian Lüning and Fritz Vahrenholt
(Translated/edited by P Gosselin)

A dew days ago D. E. Koelle expressed some outrage at questionable statements made by the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD German Weather Service) at a press conference in March 2014. The dubious statements were about Germany’s historical temperature development and came across as being alarmist (see “German Weather Service Uses Manipulative Statistical Sleights Of Hand To Craft Warming“). The DWD also looked at other weather parameters at the event, like precipitation. On page 2 of its press release the DWD writes:

Winter in Germany has gotten 30% wetter since 1881
Climate change in Germany can also be seen in precipitation data. The DWD experts calculated a 10% increase for annual mean precipitation since 1881. If one considers only winters, the increase nationwide is almost 30%. For spring and autumn the increases are almost 12% and 9% respectively. In the summer months the mean precipitation amounts since 1881 have decreased 1.2%.”

Winters are getting wetter, so salvage whatever you can.

But hold on a second. Let’s take a look to see if there is any truth behind the DWD’s claim of winter floods. To do this we use the online precipitation data that the DWD provide themselves. The result is depicted below. The surprise is great: Winter precipitation (December-January-February, DJF) is currently only about 4.5% higher than the period around 1918 and the 30-year smoothed curve always goes up and down. Climate alarm!

Figure: Precipitation in Germany over the last 125 years. Data source: DWD. Chart: DH7FB

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Moreover, the chart shows a downward trend, which happens to coincide with Germany’s temperature trend over the last 15 years. The DWD is misleading and abusing the public trust.

[Note: 30% is the relative increase and is thus circa 7 times more than 4.5%]

 

Rash Of Weather Extremes In 1936 …Before 15 Billion “Hiroshima Bombs Worth Of Heat” Were Added To Our Climate!

We keep hearing from alarmists that if we sacrifice by giving up carbon based fuels and bring atmospheric CO2 concentrations below 350 ppm, then we will get nice weather with far fewer extremes – like in the 1930s.

Reader Jimbo however shows that this is all bogus. Now he has compiled a list of extreme weather events occurring in 1936…before 15 billion “Hiroshima bombs worth of heat” were added to the climate system by humans – and at a time when CO2 were well below the “safe level” of 350 ppm.

Recall awhile back we posted Jimbo’s list of extreme weather events for the year 1935 here.

Now he has his list of…

STRANGE / ODD / WILD / WEIRD WEATHER – 1936
DROUGHT, FIRE and FLOOD AMERICA’S PHENOMENAL NUMBER OF DISASTERS
FREAK WEATHER. EUROPEAN EASTER. AIRLINERS’ EXPERIENCES.
FREAKISH WEATHER FURTHER FLOODS New York
FREAKISH WEATHER. IN VICTORIA. Torrential Rain. MELBOURNE
World’s Weirdest Weather America’s Blizzard Of Mud
WILD WEATHER In New Zealand TERRIFIC GALES LASH EUROPE AND BRITAIN Ships Wrecked. PHONE SERVICES DISLOCATED
HAILSTONES KILL 19 […AS LARGE AS COCONUTS…]
WILD WEATHER MORE WILD WEATHER Tornado’s Wreckage East and West
EVEREST UNCONQUERED ATTEMPT ABANDONED UNPRECEDENTED BAD WEATHER VIOLENT WIND. Damage in Victoria [..Red rain fell…a waterspout was seen..]

———————
HEATWAVES – 1936
DEATHS IN CANADA SIX HUNDRED IN ONTARIO […worst six days’ heat wave in the history…]
Relief in Sight After 5,000 Perish….America Heat Wave…..
A HEAT WAVE HAS QUEENSLAND IN GRIP. SEVERE CONDITIONS
Antarctic Expedition. Polar Heat Wave.
Black Swan Dies In Sudden Heat Wave, But Polar Bears Survive
OVER 90DEG. FOR FOUR DAYS Temperature Record For October [Brisbane]
SYDNEY RECORD HEAT

———————
COLD WAVES – 1936
UNITED STATES IN GRIP OF COLD WAVE Over 200 Deaths Blizzards, Snowstorms and Frost Widespread Suffering
INTENSE COLD BREAKS ALL RECORDS IN AMERICA WORST IN MEMORY
FROZEN CANADA 50 Degrees Below Zero Worst Cold in Memory
SPANIARDS DIE OF COLD MILITARY ACTIVITIES AFFECTED WAR IN SNOW

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DROUGHTS – 1936
TERRIFIC WHEAT LOSSES DROUGHT RAGES IN AMERICA
WORST DROUGHT IN HISTORY Millions Hit In America
DROUGHT RAVAGES IN CANADA
CALAMITOUS DROUGHT. Special Alberta Legislation
WORST DROUGHT IN HISTORY WEST AUSTRALIA SUFFERING
Cattle Dying in Hundreds Transvaal’s Most Terrible Drought in Living Memory
SOVIET GRAIN HARVEST SMALLER THAN AVERAGE DROUGHT IN MAY
GRAIN POSITION IN ARGENTINA Drought Affects Many Crops

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FLOODS – 1936
UNITED STATES FLOODS WORST ON RECORD QUARTER OF U.S.A. AFFECTED A THOUSAND LIVES LOST
DISASTROUS FLOODS LONDON PHILIPPINE FLOOD THOUSANDS DEAD OR MISSING
RECORD FLOODS. SERVICES ISOLATED Water 50 Miles Wide at Normanton. BRISBANE
RECORD FLOODS EASTERN VICTORIA INUNDATED WIDESPREAD DAMAGE
11 LIVES LOST. DISASTROUS FLOODS. £1,000,000 Damage in N.Z.
300 Dead ANATOLIAN FLOODS 50,000 PEOPLE HOMELESS
FLOODS IN FRANCE Serious Damage Reported Towns Under Water
HUGE DAM BURSTS IN JAPAN. Six Villages Swept Away […owing to heavy rain…]
FLOODS IN RUMANIA. Coffins Swept Through Streets. BUCHAREST

———————
TORNADOES – 1936
THIRD WORST DISASTER TORNADO IN U.S.A. OVER 500 DEAD
TORNADO’S HAVOC New Zealand Town BUILDINGS WRECKED
A QUEENSLAND TORNADO. Township Ravaged
HEAVY TOLL OF DEATHS THE PHILIPPINES TORNADO

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STORMS – HURRICANES / CYCLONES / TYPHOONS – 1936
5000 PEOPLE DEAD A Second Hurricane RUIN IN CENTRAL AMERICA
TYPHOON SWEEPS JAPANESE ISLAND. 741 Killed or Missing
MANY DEAD Cyclone in New Zealand SHIPS BUFFETED Extensive Damage to Property
PHILIPPINES TYPHOON 400 REPORTED DEAD. Fear of a…
Over 300 Killed in Cyclone [S. Korea]
CYCLONE STORM IN QUEENSLAND WIDESPREAD DAMAGE TYPHOON AT HONG KONG BUILDINGS WRECKED MORE THAN 100 DEAD MOUNTAINOUS SEAS. Hurricane on German Coast
FIJI HURRICANE. WORST IN HISTORY. 240 Deaths [..worst hurricane and floods ever..]
HURRICANE AFTER FLOODS IN ENGLAND 13 Dead; Widespread Damage
DISASTROUS HURRICANE. 300 Dead; 7,000 Homeless. Birmingham, Alabama
HURRICANE IN CARIBBEAN SEA. A HUNDRED THOUSAND HOMELESS
GALES SWEEP EUROPE 30 Killed: Long Trail Of Wreckage

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CLIMATE CHANGE?
IS OUR CLIMATE CHANGING? Climatic Change Brought About by Dam. [W. USA]
THE EVOLUTION OF CLIMATE. DROUQHTS: THEIR CAUSE, EFFECT AND MITIGATION
IS THE EARTH DRYING UP? World’s Deserts On The Earth

Wild And Lethal Weather Extremes Gripped The Planet…80 Years Ago When Atmospheric CO2 Was Well Under 350 ppm!

Wild and crazy weather extremes really are nothing new. I got the following compilation from reader Jimbo:
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Hi Pierre,
Please consider putting up the following as a post. It concerns 1935 bad weather events. It’s intended to put things into perspective for younger folks.

Below is a small selection of newspaper headlines from 1935 reporting on ‘bad weather’ events and some consequences. Some reports overlap into 1934.

STRANGE / ODD / WILD / WEIRD WEATHER – 1935
Britain Has Winter Heat Wave [Jan.]
FREAK WEATHER Winter in England FLOWERS BLOOM [Jan.]
COLDEST WEATHER IN MEMORY. MOTOR CARS SNOWED UP. [Britain] [Jan.]
SNOW IN MAY. Unusual Weather in England. [May]
FREAK WEATHER Frosts in England HEAVY LOSSES [June] _______
HEAT WAVE Extremes in India RECORD OF 124 DEGREES
PHENOMENAL WEATHER UNPRECEDENTED HEAT WAVE EXTRAORDINARY RAINFALL, Calcutta
INDIA UNDER FROST Record Low Temperatures Many Deaths from Pneumonia
COLD SPELL ICE in Torrid India HEAVY DEATH ROLL CALCUTTA
CATTLE KILLED BY HAILSTONES. CALCUTTA _______ WILD WEATHER Violent Duststorms Sydney
Abnormal Weather HEAVY RAIN AND FLOODS. FRUIT CROPS AFFECTED. [Australia]
Bitterly Cold Weather RECORD FOR SYDNEY…[lowest for 71 years in April.]
LIGHTNING, HAIL, BUSH FIRES WILD WEATHER REPORTED HAILSTONES PIERCE TANKS [Australia]

DROUGHT HAVOC IN INTERIOR Rabbits and Drift Ravaging Land CLIMATE CHANGE [Australia]
COOL—HOT—WET—COOL Melbourne’s Chameleon Afternoon _______
DUST STORMS IN U.S.A. Whole Country Affected FREAK WEATHER EXPERIENCED…
SEVEN DEAD IN HAILSTORM. HONOLULU
Freak Weather:…….Niagara Freezes:
AMERICA’S WINTER 200 Deaths From Cold Frost Reaches Florida _______
SNOW IN SWELTERING SAHARA ALGIERS 400 LIVES LOST. Torrential. Rain: Gales in Brazil. BUILDINGS COLLAPSE.
UNPRECEDENTED WIND AND RAIN STORMS. STATE OF PUBLIC CALAMITY. Bahia (Brazil)
Rained Jellyfish. MELBOURNE
ls the Weather Abnormal?

HEATWAVES – 1935
HEATWAVE IN FRANCE HUNDREDS OF CASES OF SUNSTROKE
HEAT WAVE IN ITALY DEATHS FROM SUNSTROKE [“…100 deaths…”]
Most Of Continent, In Heat Wave [Europe]
122 IN THE SHADE. Madras Suffers. Deaths From Heat Stroke. [India]
WHEAT ESTIMATE IN U.S. REDUCED Effect Of Rust, Heat, And Drought
WEATHER EXTREMES. COLD FOLLOWS HEAT WAVE. Hailstorm in Perth Suburbs
EXTREME HEAT THROUGHOUT STATE 113 DEGREES AT WHITE CLIFFS. SYDNEY
HEAT WAVE. High Temperatures in New Zealand
EXTREMES IN WEATHER FOR SOUTH AFRICANS Heat Wave For Match Against Yorkshire
HEAT WAVE IN SYDNEY MANY PERSONS COLLAPSE
DROUGHT CONDITIONS Anxiety in Europe Heat Wave in England
ENGLAND’S HEATWAVE. DROUGHT CONDITIONS. NO WATER SHORTAGE

DROUGHTS – 1935
DROUGHT IN AMERICA DESTITUTE FARMERS MIGRATION TO ALASKA
DROUGHT’S TOLL. 5,000,000 SHEEP DEAD. LOSSES IN QUEENSLAND
DROUGHT IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA Critical Position
DROUGHT IN CANADA Grasshoppers Eat Rhubarb FARMERS SAD PLIGHT
Cargoes Firm Serious Drought in Argentina
FLOODS AND DROUGHT. HOW CHINA SUFFERS. Children Sold for Bowl of Rice
SOLDIERS’ BODIES GRIM HARVEST ON OLD BATTLEFIELDS Drought Dried up Swamps [France & Belgium]
DROUGHT IN SOUTH OF ENGLAND
IN BAD WAY New Zealand Dairymen SEVERE DROUGHT
FOOD SHORTAGE Drought in Ceylon GOVERNMENT RELIEF
Suffering Among Italian Troops [“Drought, malaria, flies, mosquitoes, and blistering heat…East Africa”]

FLOODS – 1935
50,000 Dead in Chinese Floods
DISASTROUS U.S.A. FLOODS Hundred Dead in Five States HEAVY DAMAGES
WIDESPREAD STORMS FLOODS IN EUROPE AND ASIA MINOR
FLOODS, STORMS AND TORNADOES 250 Casualties Reported Denver, Colorado
HEAVY FLOODS IN N.Z.
DISASTER IN JAPAN 145 People Die In Floods GREAT DAMAGE
QUEENSLAND FLOODS. Bridges Still Under Water
FLOODS IN CANADA HUNDREDS OF FARMS INUNDATED SEVENTEEN DEATHS REPORTED
RHONE FLOODS Worst for 95 Years FIFTEEN LIVES LOST RIVER ELEVEN MILES WIDE
GALE AND RAIN FLOODS IN GREAT BRITAIN
FIJI FLOODS Severe Damage
72 PERSONS DEAD Landslides and Floods SOUTHERN ITALY AND SICILY
TEN FLOODS IN EIGHTEEN MONTHS [New Zealand]
2000 DEAD Cyclone and Floods in Honduras
FLOODS IN FRANCE Worst for 90 Years FIFTEEN PERSONS DROWNED
2000 DEAD OR MISSING HAITI HURRICANE AND FLOODS
SEVERE FLOODS Dead and Damage IN NEW YORK STATE
Fatal Floods In Turkey, Spain and France
450 BODIES NOW RECOVERED Disastrous Mexican Floods

TORNADOES – 1935
PLANE CRASHES IN BELGIAN CONGO Seven Killed After Tornado
FURIOUS, TORNADO DAMAGE AT COOGEE SYDNEY
FLOODS IN HAITI HEAVY LOSS OF LIFE 1,000 Believed Drowned Torrential Rain Follows Tornado
TRAIL OF RUIN TORNADO AND FIRES DESTRUCTION IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
TORNADOES Sweep American States. 34 PERSONS KILLED
FLORIDA TORNADO. Death Roll Growing. Trail of Desolation

STORMS – CYCLONES / TYPHOONS – 1935
DISASTROUS CYCLONE [NW Australia]
SEVERE CYCLONE Houses Uprooted in India
CYCLONE IN FLORIDA Heavy Loss Of Life TOWN OF TAVERNIER RAZED
BAHAMAS CYCLONE. Extensive Damage. 14 Deaths Reported
HUNDREDS DEAD IN TYPHOON 75,000 HOMES LOST Destruction in Japan
OVER 400 LOST IN FLORIDA HURRICANE MIAMI
HURRICANE DAMAGE. THIRTY REPORTED DEAD. Cuba and Jamaica Swept
1000 BELIEVED DROWNED IN HAITI
HURRICANE RAGING. DAMAGE IN SCOTLAND. SHIPS AGROUND. TRAIN DERAILED
COOK ISLANDS. Extensive Hurricane Damage

CLIMATE CHANGE? – 1935
OUR CHANGING CLIMATE Scientists Talk of Post…..[ Australia’s climate is bad,..]
CLIMATIC ECCENTRICITIES [… more or less off what is regarded as the normal…]
PLAN TO MELT THE NORTH POLE. AND IMPROVE THE WORLD’S CLIMATE. DAM 200 MILES LONG. ——–

See also 1954: A Bad Year of “Climate Change” – Natural Disasters Pummel Large Swaths of Globe, Again Global Weirding Late 19th & early 20th Centuries Extreme Climate Change: The 1933-1938 Bad weather events.

Bad Weather of the past from Steven Goddard.